The freeze-avoidance response of smelt Osmerus mordax: initiation and subsequent suppression of glycerol, trimethylamine oxide and urea accumulation.

Abstract

Smelt (Osmerus mordax) were maintained at either ambient water temperature or approximately 5 degrees C and various aspects of their freeze-avoidance response were examined from early winter until early spring. Plasma levels of glycerol, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and urea were elevated by December 15 and continued to increase in fish held in ambient… (More)

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