The four laws of black hole mechanics

  title={The four laws of black hole mechanics},
  author={James M. Bardeen and Brandon D. Carter and Stephen William Hawking},
  journal={Communications in Mathematical Physics},
Expressions are derived for the mass of a stationary axisymmetric solution of the Einstein equations containing a black hole surrounded by matter and for the difference in mass between two neighboring such solutions. Two of the quantities which appear in these expressions, namely the area A of the event horizon and the “surface gravity” κ of the black hole, have a close analogy with entropy and temperature respectively. This analogy suggests the formulation of four laws of black hole mechanics… 

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  • math. Phys. 25, 152—166
  • 1972