The formation of the heaviest elements

  title={The formation of the heaviest elements},
  author={Anna Frebel and Timothy C. Beers},
  journal={arXiv: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics},
The rapid neutron-capture process needed to build up many of the elements heavier than iron seems to take place primarily in neutron-star mergers, not supernova explosions. 

Figures from this paper

Neutron-rich matter in heaven and on Earth
Despite a length-scale difference of 18 orders of magnitude, the internal structure of neutron stars and the spatial distribution of neutrons in atomic nuclei are profoundly connected.
An ancient merger helped form our galaxy
Measurements from the Gaia spacecraft suggest a large star system merged with the Milky Way 10 billion years ago.Measurements from the Gaia spacecraft suggest a large star system merged with theExpand
Evolution of neutron capture elements in dwarf galaxies
We study the evolution of Eu and Ba abundances in local group dwarf spheroidal and ultra faint dwarf galaxies by means of detailed chemical evolution models and compare our results with new sets ofExpand
Calculation of atomic properties of superheavy elements Z=110–112 and their ions
We calculate the spectra, electric dipole transition rates and isotope shifts of the super heavy elements Ds (Z=110), Rg (Z=111) and Cn (Z=112) and their ions. These calculations were performed usingExpand
Nucleosynthesis of light trans-Fe isotopes in ccSNe: Implications from presolar SiC-X grains
This contribution presents an extension of our r-process parameter study within the high-entropy-wind (HEW) scenario of corecollapse supernovae (ccSNe). One of the primary aims of this study was toExpand
Exploring the mass surface near the rare-earth abundance peak via precision mass measurements at JYFLTRAP
The JYFLTRAP double Penning trap at the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line facility has been used to measure the atomic masses of 13 neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes. Eight of the nuclides,Expand
Theoretical study of the electron structure of superheavy elements with an open 6d shell: Sg, Bh, Hs, and Mt
We use recently developed efficient versions of the configuration interaction method to perform ab initio calculations of the spectra of superheavy elements seaborgium (Sg, $Z=106$), bohrium (Bh,Expand
Fusion Energy Output Greater than the Kinetic Energy of an Imploding Shell at the National Ignition Facility.
Time dependent low mode asymmetries that limited further progress of implosions have now been controlled, leading to an increased compression of the hot spot, resulting in hot spot areal density and stagnation pressure never before achieved in a laboratory experiment. Expand
Determination of Solar System R-Process Abundances using ENDF/B-VIII.0 and TENDL-2015 libraries
Recent multi-messenger detection of the binary neutron star merger (GW170817) energized the astrophysical community and encouraged further research for determination of nuclear physics observables.Expand
Masses of exotic nuclei
Abstract Recent developments in precision mass spectrometry of radioactive isotopes (RI) and some selected related physics subjects are reviewed. In the last decades, besides conventionalExpand


R-Process Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae
The heaviest elements are made only in cataclysmic events. Finding out whether supernovae are cataclysmic enough requires extensive astronomical observation and sophisticated computer modeling.
Two kinds of waves from a neutron-star smashup
Gravitational and electromagnetic radiation expose a merger that triggered a gamma-ray burst and manufactured heavy elements.
Precious fossils of the infant universe
The ancient, metal-poor stars at the outskirts of the Milky Way provide a window on the conditions that governed the universe shortly after the Big Bang.
Synthesis of the Elements in Stars
Man inhabits a universe composed of a great variety of elements and their isotopes. In Table I,1 a count of the stable and radioactive elements and isotopes is listed. Ninety elements are foundExpand
R-process enrichment from a single event in an ancient dwarf galaxy
It is reported that seven of the nine brightest stars in Reticulum II, observed with high-resolution spectroscopy, show strong enhancements in heavy neutron-capture elements, with abundances that follow the universal r-process pattern beyond barium. Expand
The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars
Context. The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavyExpand
Light curves of the neutron star merger GW170817/SSS17a: Implications for r-process nucleosynthesis
The late-time light curve indicates that SSS17a produced at least ~0.05 solar masses of heavy elements, demonstrating that neutron star mergers play a role in rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis in the universe. Expand
Near-Field Cosmology with Extremely Metal-Poor Stars
The oldest, most metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo and satellite dwarf galaxies present an opportunity to explore the chemical and physical conditions of the earliest star-forming environments inExpand
Merger rates of double neutron stars and stellar origin black holes: The Impact of Initial Conditions on Binary Evolution Predictions
The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations and eccentricities) are indispensable input for simulations of stellar populations.Expand
Early spectra of the gravitational wave source GW170817: Evolution of a neutron star merger
Spectra of a neutron star merger are unlike other astronomical transients and demonstrate rapid evolution of the source and Kilpatrick et al. show how these observations can be explained by an explosion known as a kilonova, which produces large quantities of heavy elements in nuclear reactions. Expand