The formation of cooperative cell assemblies in the visual cortex.

  title={The formation of cooperative cell assemblies in the visual cortex.},
  author={Wolf Singer},
  journal={The Journal of experimental biology},
  • W. Singer
  • Published 1990
  • Biology
  • The Journal of experimental biology
During a critical period of postnatal development of the mammalian visual cortex, synaptic connections are susceptible to use-dependent modifications. Synaptic connections strengthen if pre- and postsynaptic elements are active simultaneously and postsynaptic depolarization is sufficient to allow for the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor-gated conductances. By contrast, synaptic gain decreases if postsynaptic activation exceeds a critical threshold and presynaptic afferents are… 

The influence of action potentials on the development of the central visual pathway in mammals.

  • R. Kalil
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1990
The development of the mammalian visual system begins prenatally at distributed sites, where cells generated at different embryonic ages are destined to interconnect and form the visual pathways, and

Development and Plasticity of Cortical Processing Architectures

It is proposed that the cortex applies two complementary strategies to cope with the combinatorial problem posed by the astronomical number of possible relations: the analysis and representation of frequently occurring, behaviorally relevant relations by groups of cells with fixed but broadly tuned response properties; and the dynamic association of these cells into functionally coherent assemblies.

The Role of Synchrony in Neocortical Processing and Synaptic Plasticity

The results indicate that spatially distributed neurons can synchronize their discharges on a millisecond time scale, and reflects some of the Gestalt criteria used for perceptual grouping, correlating well with the animals’ perceptual abilities.

The predictive brain: temporal coincidence and temporal order in synaptic learning mechanisms.

A new class of learning rule is suggested, called a predictive Hebbian learning rule, that is sensitive to the temporal ordering of synaptic inputs and shown how this predictive learning rule could act at single synaptic connections and through diffuse neuromodulatory systems.

Functional implications of temporal structure in primate cortical information processing.

Experimental evidence from electrophysiological investigations of non-human primates and human subjects shows that synchronous activity can be found in visual, auditory and motor areas of the cortex and suggests a possible mechanism which tags related responses is the synchronization of neuronal responses of the same assembly with a precision in the milliseconds.

Read Montaguel and The Predictive Brain : Temporal

A new class of learning rule is suggested, called apredictiue Hebbian learning rule, that is sensitive to the temporal ordering of synaptic inputs and could act at single synaptic connections and through diffuse neuromodulatory systems.



Changes in the circuitry of the kitten visual cortex are gated by postsynaptic activity

More direct evidence for the participation of postsynaptic factors both in competitive suppression and in functional recovery of converging afferents was obtained and it is demonstrated that both changes in connectivity are in fact guided by post Synaptic response properties.

A cellular analogue of visual cortical plasticity

Neuronal activity plays an important role in the development of the visual pathway. The modulation of synaptic transmission by temporal correlation between pre- and postsynaptic activity is one

Ocular dominance plasticity in adult cat visual cortex after transplantation of cultured astrocytes

It is reported that resupplementation of the visual cortex of adult cats with astrocytes cultured from thevisual cortex of newborn kittens reinduces ocular-dominance plasticity in adult animals.

Long-term potentiation and NMDA receptors in rat visual cortex

In the hippocampus, which is phylogenetically older than the cerebral neocortex, high frequency stimulation of afferent pathways leads to long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission1–5.

Neural plasticity without postsynaptic action potentials: less-active inputs become dominant when kitten visual cortical cells are pharmacologically inhibited.

  • H. O. ReiterM. Stryker
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1988
Results indicate that the post Synaptic cell is crucially involved in plasticity of the visual cortex, that the direction of cortical plasticity depends on postsynaptic membrane conductance or polarization, and that plasticity can occur in the absence of post synapse spike activity.

NMDA receptors in the visual cortex of young kittens are more effective than those of adult cats

It is reported that during the critical period in young kittens, a selective NMDA-receptor antagonist blocks visual responses of cortical neurons much more effectively than it does in the adult cat, suggesting that NMDA receptors may be involved in establishing synaptic plasticity in the kitten visual cortex.

Disruption of experience-dependent synaptic modifications in striate cortex by infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist

The data indicate that the effects of APV on kitten striate cortex are likely due specifically to the blockade of NMDA receptors, and lasting effects of chronic APV infusion were not observed in adult striates.

Modulation of visual cortical plasticity by acetylcholine and noradrenaline

The results suggest that intracortical 6-OHDA disrupts plasticity by interfering with both cholinergic and noradrenergic transmission and raise the possibility that ACh and NA facilitate synaptic modifications in the striate cortex by a common molecular mechanism.

Binocular impulse blockade prevents the formation of ocular dominance columns in cat visual cortex

  • M. StrykerW. Harris
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1986
Assays indicated that retinal blockade completely blocked the formation of ocular dominance columns, unlike any of the control procedures, suggesting that the spontaneous maintained discharge of retinal ganglion cells may have an important role in the normal development of binocular connections in the visual cortex.

A physiological mechanism for Hebb's postulate of learning.

  • G. Stent
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1973
The physiological mechanism proposed here for this process posits that at synapses acting according to Hebb's postulate, the receptors for the neurotransmitter are eliminated from the post Synaptic membrane by the transient reversals of the sign of membrane polarization that occur during action potential impulses in the postsynaptic cell.