The formation and migration of sand ripples in closed conduits: Experiments with turbulent water flows

@article{Florez2016TheFA,
  title={The formation and migration of sand ripples in closed conduits: Experiments with turbulent water flows},
  author={Jorge Eduar Cardona Florez and E. M. Franklin},
  journal={Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science},
  year={2016},
  volume={71},
  pages={95-102}
}
Abstract The transport of solid particles by a fluid flow is frequently found in nature and industry. Some examples are the transport of sand in rivers and hydrocarbon pipelines. When the shear stresses exerted by a fluid flow on a granular bed remain moderate, some grains are set in motion without fluidizing the bed; the moving grains form a layer, known as bed load, that moves while maintaining contact with the fixed part of the bed. Under bed load conditions, the granular bed may become… Expand

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