The formalin test: scoring properties of the first and second phases of the pain response in rats

@article{Abbott1995TheFT,
  title={The formalin test: scoring properties of the first and second phases of the pain response in rats},
  author={Frances V. Abbott and Keith B. J. Franklin and R Frederick Westbrook},
  journal={Pain},
  year={1995},
  volume={60},
  pages={91-102}
}

A new automated method of pain scoring in the formalin test in rats

Effects of different concentrations of formalin on paw edema and pain behaviors in rats.

TLDR
Formalin-induced paw edema and pain behavior suggests that there may be some dissociation of nociception from the edema formation, and flinching behavior was more reliably expressed the biphasic response than licking response at all formalin concentrations.

The orofacial formalin test

Is the second phase of the formalin test useful to predict activity in chronic constriction injury models? A pharmacological comparison in different species.

TLDR
There is a correlation in the pharmacological activity in rats and gerbils for the tested compounds and a correlation between the second phase of the formalin test and the cold allodynia in CCI animals is found.

Improving the efficiency of the formalin test

Is the Second Phase of the Formalin Test Useful to Predict Activity in Chronic Constriction Injury Models? A Pharmacological Comparison in Different Species

TLDR
There is a correlation in the pharmacological activity in rats and gerbils for the tested compounds and a correlation between the second phase of the formalin test and the cold allodynia in CCI animals is found.

The formalin test: a dose–response analysis at three developmental stages

The medullary dorsal reticular nucleus facilitates pain behaviour induced by formalin in the rat

TLDR
Animals in which the DRt was lesioned ipsilaterally to the paw injected with formalin spent less time in focused and total pain behaviour and showed paw‐jerks less frequently than non‐lesioned animals in both phases 1 and 2 of the test.
...

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Shock-induced analgesia on the formalin test: effects of shock severity, naloxone, hypophysectomy, and associative variables.

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TLDR
In all of the experiments, the freezing response, one of the rat's species-specific defense reactions, was monitored simultaneously with recuperative behavior and a parallel was found between analgesia and this defensive response, suggesting that an animal's endogenous analgesic systems may be activated along with the animal's defensive motivational system.
...