The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research.

  title={The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research.},
  author={Timothy A. Judge and Ronald F. Piccolo and Remus Ilies},
  journal={The Journal of applied psychology},
  volume={89 1},
This study provided a meta-analysis of the relationship of the Ohio State leadership behaviors--Consideration and Initiating Structure--with leadership. Overall, 163 independent correlations for Consideration and 159 correlations for Initiating Structure were analyzed. Results revealed that both Consideration (.48) and Initiating Structure (.29) have moderately strong, nonzero relations with leadership outcomes. Consideration was more strongly related to follower satisfaction (leader… Expand

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