Current HPV vaccines and vaccine candidates are based on recombinant virus capsid proteins, so called virus-like particles (VLPs). Standardisation of assays for HPV capsid antibody will assist with epidemiology studies and future vaccine development. A World Health Organization international collaborative study was undertaken to assess the suitability of a freeze-dried serum, obtained from women naturally infected with HPV 16 and reactive against HPV 16 only, to serve as the International Standard for antibodies to HPV 16 in immunoassays and pseudovirion neutralisation assays. Eleven laboratories from nine countries participated in the collaborative study in which the candidate (NIBSC code 05/134) was assayed alongside samples from both vaccinees and naturally infected individuals. 05/134 had titres which were comparable to those obtained with serum from a naturally infected individual. Overall the variation between laboratories is similar to that observed in the previous study for samples from naturally infected individuals although slightly wider for sera from vaccinees. 05/134 has been established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization as the 1st International Standard for antibodies to HPV 16, human serum, with an assigned potency of 5IUper ampoule.