The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad)

  title={The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad)},
  author={Michel Brunet and Alain Beauvilain and Yves Coppens and {\'E}mile Heintz and Aladji H. E. Moutaye and David R. Pilbeam},
THE first sites with Pliocene and Pleistocene mammals west of the Rift Valley in Central Africa in northern Chad were reported in 1959 (ref. 1), and documented the presence of mixed savannah and woodland habitats. Further sites2 and a probable Homo erectus cranio-facial fragment3 were subsequently discovered. In 1993 a survey of Pliocene and Pleistocene formations in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Province of Chad (B.E.T.) led to the discovery of 17 new sites in the region of Bahr el Ghazal… 
Humanity from African Naissance to Coming Millennia Chadian Australopithecines: Biochronology and Environmental Context
  • M. Brunet
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2001
Five palaeontological and geological field missions carried out in the Djourab Desert (Northern Chad) by the French-Chadian Paleoanthropological Mission (MPFT) have resulted in the discovery of about
The focus of this paper is on the environment and faunas of KB, an area of scattered dunes indicating a still older age than Kollé, and the importance of sites of this age in understanding the environments of the earliest hominids.
Phylogeny of early Australopithecus: new fossil evidence from the Woranso-Mille (central Afar, Ethiopia)
  • Y. Haile-Selassie
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2010
The Woranso-Mille hominids show that there is no compelling evidence to falsify the hypothesis of ‘chronospecies pair’ or ancestor–descendant relationship between Au.
Le plus vieux Camelidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) d’Afrique : limite Mio-Pliocène, Tchad
– A fragment of mandible and two metapodials complete unearthed from the fossiliferous aera of Kossom Bougoudi (KB3 and KB26), northern Chad are described. A comparative study allows to assign these
"Lucy" redux: a review of research on Australopithecus afarensis.
The discovery and naming of A. afarensis coincided with important developments in theory and methodology in paleoanthropology; in addition, important fossil and genetic discoveries were changing expectations about hominin divergence dates from extant African apes.
First Early Hominin from Central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo)
It is shown that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa.
Phytoliths indicate significant arboreal cover at Sahelanthropus type locality TM266 in northern Chad and a decrease in later sites.
A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa
The discovery of six hominid specimens from Chad, central Africa, 2,500 km from the East African Rift Valley, suggest that the earliest members of the hominids clade were more widely distributed than has been thought, and that the divergence between the human and chimpanzee lineages was earlier than indicated by most molecular studies.
Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad
The fauna from Toros-Menalla site 266 suggests that S. tchadensis lived close to a lake, but not far from a sandy desert, perhaps the oldest record of desert conditions in the Neogene of northern central Africa.


Uplift of the roof of africa and its bearing on the evolution of mankind
Evidence concerning the geomorphological evolution of the Western Rift Valley, sedimentation within the valley and comparison of the fossil mammalian faunas of Western Uganda and East Africa indicate
Fossil hominids from the Laetolil Beds
The remains of 13 early hominids have been found in the Laetolil Beds in northern Tanzania, 30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, giving an upper limit averaging 3.59 Myr and a lower limit of 3.77 Myr.
Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia
The antiquity and primitive morphology of A. ramidus suggests that it represents a long-sought potential root species for the Hominidae.
Species, Subspecies, and Baboon Systematics
Baboon diversity is used to explore some aspects of species definition and diagnosis, without attempting a comprehensive revision of the group or an exhaustive exploration of the species concept.
Gene trees and hominoid phylogeny.
The results indicate that despite high intraspecific variation in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences of some hominoids, humans and chimpanzees are nonetheless significantly most closely related.
Species, Species Concepts and Primate Evolution
The fossil record shows clear trends inSpeciation in Living Hominoid Primates and Geographic Variation in Primates, and Species Recognition in the Fossil Record is concerned.
Kin selection, social structure, gene flow, and the evolution of chimpanzees.
Sequence variation patterns at two mitochondrial loci indicate historically high long-distance gene flow and clarify the relationships among three allopatric subspecies and imply that P. t.
Dental remains from the Hadar formation, Ethiopia: 1974–1977 collections
Dental remains of Australopithecus afarensis recovered from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia (1974–1977) are described anatomically. Descriptions are accompanied by illustrations and
The Cambridge encyclopedia of human evolution
The evolutionary future of humankind is examined through the lens of primates, human populations, past and present, and genetic clues of relatedness.