The first Copernican was Copernicus: the difference between Pre-Copernican and Copernican heliocentrism

  title={The first Copernican was Copernicus: the difference between Pre-Copernican and Copernican heliocentrism},
  author={Christi{\'a}n C. Carman},
  journal={Archive for History of Exact Sciences},
It is well known that heliocentrism was proposed in ancient times, at least by Aristarchus of Samos. Given that ancient astronomers were perfectly capable of understanding the great advantages of heliocentrism over geocentrism—i.e., to offer a non-ad hoc explanation of the retrograde motion of the planets and to order unequivocally all the planets while even allowing one to know their relative distances—it seems difficult to explain why heliocentrism did not triumph over geocentrism or even… 

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