Epipodite and fat cells as sites of hemoglobin synthesis in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna
Two kinds of epithelial cells, dark and light types, are alternately arranged in the gill of Daphnia magna. The dark cell has numerous mitochondria and an elaborate tubular system containing two kinds of cytoplasmic tubules, small about 70 nm in diameter, and large about 130 nm in diameter. The former occur in bundles and seem to be smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticulum. The latter, lined with a ridged surface coat and frequently open at the lateral and basal cell membrane, are regarded as extensions of the cell membrane. The apical cell membrane of the dark cell is modified by repeated subunits of a cytoplasmic coat on the inner leaflet of the unit membrane. The light cell exhibits a high degree of basal infoldings of the cell membrane, which represent a magnification of the surface area of the cell. Large mitochondria between the infoldings often come into intimate association with the infolded cell membrane to form a regular array of parallel mitochondria interposed with the double cell membranes. The results suggest that at least the dark epithelial cells play an important role in the osmoregulation of this animal.