Barriers to Women's Leadership
Despite the fact that women are making inroads into the boardrooms, they are still underrepresented in higher management positions in companies, in politics, and in institutions of higher education.…
Stressing the Advantages of Female Leadership Can Place Women at a Disadvantage
Women are still underrepresented in management and men hold the majority of higher positions. Nonetheless, one often-heard claim in popular media is that female people-centered leadership skills…
Female Leadership Advantage and Disadvantage: Resolving the Contradictions
In the United States, women are increasingly praised for having excellent skills for leadership and, in fact, women, more than men, manifest leadership styles associated with effective performance as…
Women's Access to Managerial Positions: An Experimental Study of Leadership Styles and Gender
- Medicine, PsychologyThe Spanish Journal of Psychology
This study attempts to test one of the explanations of the scarce representation of women in managerial positions, specifically the one advanced by “role congruity theory of prejudice toward female…
Beyond a gendered model of leadership in higher education in France
More and more women are accessing positions of power across various industries and job levels yet there is still a dearth of women in elite executive roles. Previous research in the social sciences…
From female leadership advantage to female leadership deficit
Purpose – This paper takes an institutional approach to identify cognitive, normative, and regulatory factors affecting women’s business leadership in an under-studied traditional society. The…
Women and Leadership
Despite the proliferation of leadership research in the past 75 years, investigating the ways in which women and men leaders enact and experience leadership continues to surface unanswered questions.…
Who are better leaders; Transformational vs Transactional Leaders? Women vs Men?
There are numerous leadership theories and which leadership style is the most effective is often debated. Gender has been implicated as playing a significant role, as stereotypical feminine…
Gender Differences in the Leadership Styles of MPA Directors
- Political Science
Abstract A growing body of literature has documented leadership styles by gender. This study examines if directors of Master of Public Administration (MPA) programs accredited by the Network of…
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- PsychologyPsychological bulletin
Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective, however, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms.
Gender and Managerial Stereotypes: Have the Times Changed?
There has been a considerable increase in the proportion of women managers in recent years, from 21% in 1976 to 46% in 1999, and a call for “feminine leadership” to capitalize on this increase. The…
Ways women lead.
- BusinessHarvard business review
Women managers are succeeding not by adopting the traditional command-and-control leadership style but by drawing on what is unique to their experience as women. According to a study the author…
Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis.
This article reviews research on the evaluation of women and men who occupy leadership roles. In these experiments, the characteristics of leaders other than their sex were field constant, and the…
Making Leadership Work More Effectively for Women
This article explores strategies for enhancing women's effectiveness as leaders by first recognizing that leadership itself is gendered and is enacted within a gendered context, two themes that recur…
Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis
Research comparing the leadership styles of women and men is reviewed, and evidence is found for both the presence and the absence of differences between the sexes. In contrast to the…
Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: a meta-analysis comparing women and men.
- PsychologyPsychological bulletin
A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more…
Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders.
- PsychologyPsychological review
Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that consequences of perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles are more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles.