The female leadership advantage: An evaluation of the evidence

@article{Eagly2003TheFL,
  title={The female leadership advantage: An evaluation of the evidence},
  author={Alice H. Eagly and Linda L. Carli},
  journal={Leadership Quarterly},
  year={2003},
  volume={14},
  pages={807-834}
}
Abstract Journalists and authors of trade books increasingly assert a female advantage in leadership, whereby women are more likely than men to lead in a style that is effective under contemporary conditions. Contrasting our analysis of these claims with Vecchio's [Leadersh. Q. 13 (2002) 643] analysis, we show that women have some advantages in typical leadership style but suffer some disadvantages from prejudicial evaluations of their competence as leaders, especially in masculine… Expand

Tables from this paper

Barriers to Women's Leadership
Despite the fact that women are making inroads into the boardrooms, they are still underrepresented in higher management positions in companies, in politics, and in institutions of higher education.Expand
Female Leadership Advantage and Disadvantage: Resolving the Contradictions
In the United States, women are increasingly praised for having excellent skills for leadership and, in fact, women, more than men, manifest leadership styles associated with effective performance asExpand
Stressing the Advantages of Female Leadership Can Place Women at a Disadvantage
Women are still underrepresented in management and men hold the majority of higher positions. Nonetheless, one often-heard claim in popular media is that female people-centered leadership skillsExpand
Women's Access to Managerial Positions: An Experimental Study of Leadership Styles and Gender
This study attempts to test one of the explanations of the scarce representation of women in managerial positions, specifically the one advanced by “role congruity theory of prejudice toward femaleExpand
Beyond a gendered model of leadership in higher education in France
More and more women are accessing positions of power across various industries and job levels yet there is still a dearth of women in elite executive roles. Previous research in the social sciencesExpand
From female leadership advantage to female leadership deficit
Purpose – This paper takes an institutional approach to identify cognitive, normative, and regulatory factors affecting women’s business leadership in an under-studied traditional society. TheExpand
Who are better leaders; Transformational vs Transactional Leaders? Women vs Men?
There are numerous leadership theories and which leadership style is the most effective is often debated. Gender has been implicated as playing a significant role, as stereotypical feminineExpand
Women and Leadership
Despite the proliferation of leadership research in the past 75 years, investigating the ways in which women and men leaders enact and experience leadership continues to surface unanswered questions.Expand
Gender Differences in the Leadership Styles of MPA Directors
Abstract A growing body of literature has documented leadership styles by gender. This study examines if directors of Master of Public Administration (MPA) programs accredited by the Network ofExpand
Queens of the hill: Creative destruction and the emergence of executive leadership of women
Despite penetrating the middle management ranks of many U.S. businesses, women continue to lag far behind men in their appointments to top leadership positions. Many explanations exist for why theExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 152 REFERENCES
Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: a meta-analysis.
TLDR
Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective, however, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms. Expand
Gender and Managerial Stereotypes: Have the Times Changed?
There has been a considerable increase in the proportion of women managers in recent years, from 21% in 1976 to 46% in 1999, and a call for “feminine leadership” to capitalize on this increase. TheExpand
Ways women lead.
  • J. B. Rosener
  • Political Science, Medicine
  • Harvard business review
  • 1990
Women managers are succeeding not by adopting the traditional command-and-control leadership style but by drawing on what is unique to their experience as women. According to a study the authorExpand
Leadership and gender advantage
Abstract Claims of “gender advantage” in the area of leadership are critiqued, and the findings from research on sex/gender differences in social behavior and leader effectiveness are reviewed.Expand
Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis.
This article reviews research on the evaluation of women and men who occupy leadership roles. In these experiments, the characteristics of leaders other than their sex were field constant, and theExpand
Making Leadership Work More Effectively for Women
This article explores strategies for enhancing women's effectiveness as leaders by first recognizing that leadership itself is gendered and is enacted within a gendered context, two themes that recurExpand
Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis
Research comparing the leadership styles of women and men is reviewed, and evidence is found for both the presence and the absence of differences between the sexes. In contrast to theExpand
America's competitive secret : women managers
The United States has a large number of well educated, experienced professional women ready, willing and able to move into the boardrooms and executive suites of corporate America. Together theyExpand
Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: a meta-analysis comparing women and men.
A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in moreExpand
Sex Differences in Leadership: How Real Are They?
A meta-analytic review of 17 studies examining sex differences in leadership indicates that male and female leaders exhibit equal amounts of initiating structure and consideration and have equallyExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...