The feasibility of a mixed reality surgical training environment
The Sheffield knee arthroscopy training system (SKATS) was originally a visual-based virtual environment without haptic feedback, but has been further developed as a mixed reality-training environment through the use of tactile augmentation (or passive haptics). The design of the new system is outlined and then tested. In the first experiment described, the effect of tactile augmentation on performance is considered by comparing novice performance using the original and mixed reality system. In the second experiment the mixed reality system is assessed in terms of construct validity by comparing the performance of users with differing levels of surgical expertise. The results are discussed in terms of the validity of a mixed reality environment for training knee arthroscopy.