Research on the causes of sexual assault typically analyzes rape committed by acquaintances and strangers together, despite the fact that the characteristics of the assault in these two circumstances are very different. Thus, this work examines whether the causes of each type of sexual assault--stranger and acquaintance rape--differ. The results of the analyses reveal that variables that describe a culture of gender equality, prior child abuse, and prior sexual assaults are associated with acquaintance assaults. In contrast, a culture of "hypermasculinity" is associated with stranger rape. The implications of these findings are discussed.