The face-detection effect: Configuration enhances detection

@article{Purcell1988TheFE,
  title={The face-detection effect: Configuration enhances detection},
  author={D G Purcell and Alan L. Stewart},
  journal={Perception \& Psychophysics},
  year={1988},
  volume={43},
  pages={355-366}
}
We have found that a picture of a face is more easily detected than is a pattern of arbitrarily rearranged facial features. An upright face is also more detectable than an inverted face. Using two-alternative forced-choice visual masking paradigms, we have found that this face-detection effect (FDE) can be produced with line drawings and with photocopies of a picture of a face. Our results suggest that a face, as an organized, meaningful pattern, is a more potent stimulus than an arbitrary… 

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