The eye of the humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti: visual fields and schematic optics

@article{Martin1984TheEO,
  title={The eye of the humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti: visual fields and schematic optics},
  author={G. Martin and S. R. Young},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences},
  year={1984},
  volume={223},
  pages={197 - 222}
}
  • G. Martin, S. R. Young
  • Published 1984
  • Geography, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
Construction of a schematic eye indicates that the eye of Spheniscus humboldti is aquatic in design. The lens has a power of 100 dioptres (D) while (in air) the cornea has a power of 29 D. In air, the eye is myopic (approximately 28 D) but in water it is emmetropic. Minimum pupil size would seem insufficient to allow the pupil to function as a stenopaic aperture and increase depth of focus sufficiently to overcome the eye’s aerial myopia. Entry into water reduces maxim um image brightness by… Expand
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