The eye of the hooded seal,Cystophora cristata, in air and water

@article{Sivak1989TheEO,
  title={The eye of the hooded seal,Cystophora cristata, in air and water},
  author={Jacob Gershon Sivak and Howard C. Howland and J. West and J A Weerheim},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
  year={1989},
  volume={165},
  pages={771-777}
}
Multiple refractive state measurements were made on a male and female hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) when the eyes were exposed to air and to water. The measures, made by conventional retinoscopy and by photorefraction, show that the seals are moderately hyperopic (2–3 diopters) in water and moderately myopic (2–4 diopters) in air. No significant astigmatism was noted in either medium. The absence of refractive state variation over time suggests that an accommodative mechanism is… CONTINUE READING

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