The extinction of the dinosaurs

  title={The extinction of the dinosaurs},
  author={Stephen Louis Brusatte and Richard J. Butler and Paul M. Barrett and Matthew T. Carrano and David C Evans and Graeme T. Lloyd and Philip D. Mannion and Mark A. Norell and Daniel J. Peppe and Paul Upchurch and Thomas E. Williamson},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
Non‐avian dinosaurs went extinct 66 million years ago, geologically coincident with the impact of a large bolide (comet or asteroid) during an interval of massive volcanic eruptions and changes in temperature and sea level. There has long been fervent debate about how these events affected dinosaurs. We review a wealth of new data accumulated over the past two decades, provide updated and novel analyses of long‐term dinosaur diversity trends during the latest Cretaceous, and discuss an emerging… 
Dinosaur biodiversity declined well before the asteroid impact, influenced by ecological and environmental pressures
It is found that the decline of dinosaurs was likely driven by global climate cooling and herbivorous diversity drop, and the latter is likely due to hadrosaurs outcompeting other herbivores.
Dinosaur diversification rates were not in decline prior to the K-Pg boundary
Bayesian phylogenetic generalized linear mixed models are used to assess the fit of 12 dinosaur phylogenies to three speciation models, which suggest that dinosaur speciation rates were not in terminal decline prior to the K-Pg boundary and that the clade was still capable of generating new taxa.
Evolution and dispersal of snakes across the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction
An extensive molecular dataset is combined with phylogenetically and stratigraphically constrained fossil calibrations to infer an evolutionary timescale for Serpentes, revealing a potential diversification among crown snakes associated with the K-Pg mass extinction.
Size-driven preservational and macroecological biases in the latest Maastrichtian terrestrial vertebrate assemblages of North America
Abstract. The end-Cretaceous (K/Pg) mass extinction event is the most recent and well-understood of the “big five” and triggered establishment of modern terrestrial ecosystem structure. Despite the
Asteroid impact, not volcanism, caused the end-Cretaceous dinosaur extinction
The results support the asteroid impact as the main driver of the non-avian dinosaur extinction, by contrast, induced warming from volcanism mitigated the most extreme effects of asteroid impact, potentially reducing the extinction severity.
Ecological niche modelling does not support climatically-driven dinosaur diversity decline before the Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction
It is suggested that Maastrichtian North American dinosaur diversity is likely to be underestimated, with the apparent decline a product of sampling bias, and not due to a climatically-driven decrease in habitability as previously hypothesised.
Multifaceted disparity approach reveals dinosaur herbivory flourished before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction
Abstract Understanding temporal patterns in biodiversity is an enduring question in paleontology. Compared with studies of taxonomic diversity, long-term perspectives on ecological diversity are
Palaeontology meets metacommunity ecology: the Maastrichtian dinosaur fossil record of North America as a case study
Documenting the patterns and potential associated processes of ancient biotas has always been a central challenge in palaeontology. Over recent decades, intense debate has focused on the organization


Dinosaur morphological diversity and the end-Cretaceous extinction.
There was no universal biodiversity trend and the intensively studied North American record may reveal primarily local patterns, but at least some dinosaur groups did endure long-term declines in morphological variability before their extinction.
The Extinction of the Dinosaurs in North America
Rightly or wrongly, dinosaurs are poster children for the CretaceousTertiary (K-T) extinction. The rate and cause of their extinction, however, has been contentious, at least in part because of their
The Chicxulub Asteroid Impact and Mass Extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary
Records of the global stratigraphy across this boundary are synthesized to assess the proposed causes of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and conclude that the Chicxulub impact triggered the mass extinction.
Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution
  • G. Lloyd, K. Davis, M. Benton
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2008
It is concluded that dinosaurs did not experience a progressive decline at the end of the Cretaceous, nor was their evolution driven directly by the KTR, and major diversification shifts occurred largely in the first one-third of the group's history.
The gradual decline of the dinosaurs—fact or fallacy?
  • D. Russell
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1984
Both great dinosaurian orders (Saurischia and Ornithischia) were major components of terrestrial vertebrate faunas for ∼150 Myr. The prevailing view is that dinosaurs attained an evolutionary acme
The last polar dinosaurs: high diversity of latest Cretaceous arctic dinosaurs in Russia
Dinosaur eggshell fragments indicate that at least several latest Cretaceous dinosaur taxa could reproduce in polar region and were probably year-round residents of high latitudes, strongly questions hypotheses according to which dinosaur extinction was a result of temperature decline, caused or not by the Chicxulub impact.
Dinosaur extinction: closing the ‘3 m gap’
The discovery of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur specimen is reported: a ceratopsian brow horn found in a poorly rooted, silty, mudstone floodplain deposit located no more than 13 cm below the palynologically defined boundary.
Mountain Building Triggered Late Cretaceous North American Megaherbivore Dinosaur Radiation
SymmeTREE analysis indicates that megaherbivorous dinosaur clades exhibited significant variation in diversification rates throughout the Late Cretaceous and offers a new lower boundary on Laramide surficial deformation that precedes estimates based on sedimentological data alone.
Time Scales of Critical Events Around the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary
Radiometric dating establishes the mass extinction that killed the dinosaurs as synchronous with a large asteroid impact between the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and associated mass extinctions with the Chicxulub bolide impact to within 32,000 years.
Dinosaur diversity and the rock record
Strong statistically robust correlations demonstrate that almost all aspects of ornithischian and theropod diversity curves can be explained by geological megabiases, whereas the sauropodomorph record diverges from modelled predictions and may be a stronger contender for identifying evolutionary signals.