The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam

@article{Stellman2003TheEA,
  title={The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam},
  author={Jeanne Mager Stellman and Steven D. Stellman and Richard Christian and Tracy Weber and Carrie D. Tomasallo},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2003},
  volume={422},
  pages={681-687}
}
Herbicides including Agent Orange were sprayed by United States forces for military purposes during the Vietnam War (1961–1971) at a rate more than an order of magnitude greater than for similar domestic weed control. In 1974, the US National Academy of Sciences published estimates of the extent and distribution of herbicides sprayed. Here we present revised estimates, developed using more-complete data. The spray inventory is expanded by more than seven million litres, in particular with… 

Exposure opportunity models for Agent Orange, dioxin, and other military herbicides used in Vietnam, 1961–1971

Two classes of models for use in epidemiological and environmental studies that utilize the HERBS data for estimating relative exposure opportunity indices are presented, including a discrete “hits” model that counts instances of proximity in time and space to known herbicide applications, and a continuous exposure opportunity index, E4, that takes into account type and amount of herbicide sprayed.

A geographic information system for characterizing exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam.

A conceptual framework for estimating exposure opportunity to herbicides and a geographic information system (GIS) have been developed that provides a basis for estimation of herbicide exposure for use in large-scale epidemiologic studies.

Environmental fate and bioavailability of agent orange and its associated dioxin during the vietnam war

This paper reviews the published scientific literature related to the environmental fate of Agent Orange and the contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and discusses how this affected the potential exposure to TCDD of ground troops in Vietnam.

The Fate of Agent Blue, the Arsenic Based Herbicide, Used in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War

The destruction of the South Vietnamese rice (Oryza sativa L) crop using an arsenic-based herbicide known as Agent Blue during the American Vietnam War (1965-1972) was not a secret; however, it

A Review of Public Health in Vietnam: 50 Years after Agent Orange was Sprayed

  • A. Young
  • Political Science
    Health Education and Public Health
  • 2019
Introduction For five decades there have been continuous controversies over the use of Agent Orange and other tactical herbicides sprayed for defoliation and crop destruction purposes during the

Agent Orange and the Prevalence of Cancer Among the Vietnamese Population 30 Years after the End of the Vietnam War

There is mixed evidence as to whether cohorts born before or after the end of the spraying campaigns are equally affected, and increasing exposure to past military spraying is associated with increasing prevalence of reported cancer in 2001-2002.

Post-Vietnam Dioxin Exposure in Agent Orange-Contaminated C-123 Aircraft.

The committee finds that the methods used for surface sampling appear reliable, while methods for air sampling do not appear reliable andLimitations in the available information prevent the committee from deriving exact estimates of the AF reservists’ exposure to herbicide residue.

The History, Science and Risks of Defoliants Used in the Vietnam War

Results indicated residual risks were unlikely except at a limited number of sites where large amounts of material were handled and residuals from unintentional releases may have persisted, and additional site investigations and spatial analysis approaches may be warranted as a precautionary measure.

Agent Blue Spraying in the Mekong Delta during the Vietnam War: Fate of the Arsenic Based Herbicide Weapon Used to Destroy Rice Crop and Mangrove Forests

Agent Blue, a mixture of cacodylic acid (CH 3 ) As O 2 H) and sodium cacodylate (C 2 H 6 AsNaO 2 ), was a tactical arsenic-based herbicide used during the Vietnam War to destroy grasses and rice
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 69 REFERENCES

A geographic information system for characterizing exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam.

A conceptual framework for estimating exposure opportunity to herbicides and a geographic information system (GIS) have been developed that provides a basis for estimation of herbicide exposure for use in large-scale epidemiologic studies.

The Effects of Herbicides in South Vietnam. Part B. Working Papers: Persistence and Disappearance of Herbicides in Tropical Soils

Abstract : A very obvious and legitimate question poses itself when an extraneous material has been introduced into the environment: How long will this material persist, or how fast will it

The Effects of Herbicides in South Vietnam. Part B. Working Papers: Estimating the Highlander Population Affected by Herbicides

Abstract : The report sets forth some of the basic problems associated with a determination of the number of Highlanders likely to have been affected by the use of herbicides in South Vietnam (SVN).

Herbicides Used in Southeast Asia

Abstract : The purpose of this report is to provide information on the herbicides used for defoliation, crop control, and other types of vegetation control in military operations in Southeast Asia.

Operation Ranch Hand: The Air Force and Herbicides in Southeast Asia, 1961-1971

Abstract : One of aviation's more unusual military applications occurred in Southeast Asia, where American and Vietnamese planes sprayed large areas of Vietnam and Laos with herbicides in an effort

Dioxin reservoirs in southern Viet Nam--a legacy of Agent Orange.

The Toxicology, Environmental Fate, and Human Risk of Herbicide Orange and Its Associated Dioxin

Abstract : The use of herbicides in South Vietnam between 1962 and 1971 was reviewed, including the nature and quantities of herbicides used, their handling and application. Emphasis was placed on

2,4,5-T in Cambodia and Laos

Discussion of the use of herbicides in Indochina would be incomplete without reference to a defoliation mission carried out over Cambodia in the Spring of 1969.1–4 The timing of the incident is

Evaluation of Herbicide Operations in the Republic of Vietnam (September 1962-September 1963)

Abstract : The report is a review and assessment of evaluation reports, methodology, observations, and policies on the use of herbicides for the destruction of crops and vegetation in Vietnam.

OCONUS DEFOLIATION TEST PROGRAM.

Abstract : A test program was conducted in Thailand in 1964 and 1965 to determine the effectiveness of aerial applications of Purple, Orange, and other candidate chemical agents in defoliation of
...