The extended contact effect: Knowledge of cross-group friendships and prejudice.

  title={The extended contact effect: Knowledge of cross-group friendships and prejudice.},
  author={Stephen C. Wright and Arthur Aron and Tracy McLaughlin-Volpe and Stacy A. Ropp},
  journal={Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
The extended contact hypothesis proposes that knowledge that an in-group member has a close relationship with an out-group member can lead to more positive intergroup attitudes. Proposed mechanisms are the in-group or out-group member serving as positive exemplars and the inclusion of the out-group member's group membership in the self. In Studies I and 2, respondents knowing an in-group member with an out-group friend had less negative attitudes toward that out-group, even controlling for… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Out-group trust, intergroup anxiety, and out-group attitude as mediators of the effect of imagined intergroup contact on intergroup behavioral tendencies
We investigated whether imagining contact with an out-group member would change behavioral tendencies toward the out-group. In Experiment 1, British high school students who imagined talking to anExpand
Understanding the impact of cross-group friendship on interactions with novel outgroup members.
It is implied that cross-group friendship improves novel intergroup experiences to the degree that outgroups become associated with the self. Expand
What will the others think? In-group norms as a mediator of the effects of intergroup contact.
The results suggest that the intergroup contact of other in-group members (in-group friends or classmates) affects attitudes towards the out-group by changing the perception of in- group norms and by reducing intergroup anxiety. Expand
When is computer-mediated intergroup contact most promising? Examining the effect of out-group members' anonymity on prejudice
CMIC can contribute to conflict resolution interventions, preparing individuals for direct intergroup contact, if its affordances or conversation topics enhance interaction partners' social presence, as interaction partners are perceived as less socially present. Expand
Intergroup Contact and Prejudice Toward Immigrants in Italy: The Mediational Role of Anxiety and the Moderational Role of Group Salience
Two studies investigated intergroup contact with immigrants in Italy. In Study 1 (N = 310 students) contact had direct positive effects on perceived out-group variability and out-group attitude, andExpand
Reducing explicit and implicit outgroup prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety.
Theoretical and practical implications of the findings argue for the inclusion of self-disclosure as a key component of social interventions to reduce prejudice, as exposure to the outgroup positively predicted implicit outgroup attitude. Expand
The Other Side of We: When Outgroup Members Express Common Identity
Across both studies, high school students who learned that other ingroup members categorized students at both schools within the common identity of “students” showed less intergroup bias in evaluations and greater willingness for contact. Expand
Contact with out-group friends as a predictor of meta-attitudinal strength and accessibility of attitudes toward gay men.
The authors emphasize the importance of considering the nature of out-group attitudes more completely when evaluating the effectiveness of intergroup contact in reducing prejudice. Expand
Prejudice and Intergroup Attributions: The Role of Personalization and Performance Feedback
We manipulated personalization and group performance feedback to examine their effects on intergroup attributions and prejudice. Following high or low levels of personalized contact with a typicalExpand
Why Can't We Be Friends: The Use of Imagined Contact in Changing Negative Attitudes Towards Outgroups
The contact hypothesis states that a person or group is more likely to have a positive attitude towards an outgroup when put into direct contact with a member or several members of an outgroup.Expand


In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: A cognitive-motivational analysis.
Experimental research on intergroup discrimination in favor of one's own group is reviewed in terms of the basis of differentiati on between in-group and outgroup and in terms of the response measureExpand
Dimensions of Contact as Predictors of Intergroup Anxiety, Perceived Out-Group Variability, and Out-Group Attitude: An Integrative Model
This study tested an integrative model of how dimensions of contact (quantitative, qualitative, and intergroup) are related to intergroup anxiety, perceived out-group variability, and out groupExpand
Generalized Intergroup Contact Effects on Prejudice
The intergroup contact hypothesis is tested with self-reports of 3,806 survey respondents in seven 1988 national probability samples of France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and West Germany. WithExpand
Group Representations and Intergroup Bias: Positive Affect, Similarity, and Group Size
This study examined how social (group size: two, three, or four persons), appearance (similar or dissimilar dress), and affective (positive or neutral mood) factors can influence socialExpand
Group Norms and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship: A Role for Group Identification
Two studies provided support for the proposal that the role of norms in attitude-behavior relations can be usefully reconceptualized from the perspective of social identity/self-categorizationExpand
Cross‐cutting category membership with role assignment: A means of reducing intergroup bias
Two experiments evaluated the effect of role assignment on intergroup bias. A social categorization model (Brewer & Miller, 1984) predicts a reduction in bias when the basis for assignment to taskExpand
Intergroup norms and intergroup discrimination: distinctive self-categorization and social identity effects.
The results confirm the importance of in-group norms and demonstrate differences between experimental and natural groups in the applicability of competing social identity and self-categorization principles. Expand
Affect and perceived group variability: Implications for stereotyping and prejudice.
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the affect and perceived group variability and presents the implications for stereotyping and prejudice. Affect is an inexorable force in intergroupExpand
Social categorization and behavioral episodes: A cognitive analysis of the effects of intergroup contact.
The effects of intergroup contact on stereotypic beliefs, it is argued, depend upon (1) the potential susceptibility of those beliefs to disconfirming information and the degree to which the contactExpand
Individual-Group Discontinuity: Further Evidence for Mediation by Fear and Greed
The authors have previously shown that intergroup interactions are dramatically more competitive than interindividual interactions and have termed this phenomenon a discontinuity effect. They believeExpand