The expectation of free and fixed particles in urinary stone disease.

@article{Finlayson1978TheEO,
  title={The expectation of free and fixed particles in urinary stone disease.},
  author={Birdwell Finlayson and Fiona Reid},
  journal={Investigative urology},
  year={1978},
  volume={15 6},
  pages={442-8}
}
There is a paucity of literature concerning the origin of urinary stone disease. This report uses information currently available to examine the likelihood of urinary stone disease starting from free or fixed crystalluric particles. We conclude that stone disease in the renal tubules and renal pelvis cannot begin on unattached (free) particles. However, in conditions associated with stone formation, initiation of bladder stone disease on free particles seems quite likely. 

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