The exceptional magnitude and intensity of the Toba eruption, sumatra: An example of the use of deep-sea tephra layers as a geological tool

  title={The exceptional magnitude and intensity of the Toba eruption, sumatra: An example of the use of deep-sea tephra layers as a geological tool},
  author={Dragoslav Ninkovich and R. Stephen J. Sparks and Michael T. Ledbetter},
  journal={Bulletin Volcanologique},
The eruption of Toba (75,000 years BP), Sumatra, is the largest magnitude eruption documented from the Quaternary. The eruption produced the largest-known caldera the dimensions of which are 100 × 30 km and which is surrounded by rhyolitic ignimbrite covering an area of over 20,000 km2. The associated deep-sea tephra layer is found in piston cores in the north-eastern Indian Ocean covering a minimum area of 5 × 106 km2. We have investigated the thickness, grain size and texture of the Toba deep… 
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  • I. V. Utkin
  • Geology
    Journal of Volcanology and Seismology
  • 2014
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