The evolution of the quartz crystal clock

@article{Marrison1948TheEO,
  title={The evolution of the quartz crystal clock},
  author={W. A. Marrison},
  journal={Bell Syst. Tech. J.},
  year={1948},
  volume={27},
  pages={510-588}
}
  • W. A. Marrison
  • Published 1 July 1948
  • Political Science
  • Bell Syst. Tech. J.
Some of the earliest documents in human history relate to man's interest in timekeeping. This interest arose partly because of his curiosity about the visible world around him, and partly because the art of time measurement became an increasingly important part of living as the need for cooperation between the members of expanding groups increased. There are still in existence devices believed to have been made by the Egyptians six thousand years ago for the purpose of telling time from the… 

Postulates for Physical Time

  • E. Biser
  • Philosophy
    Philosophy of Science
  • 1952
It is evident to every earnest thinker that a theory of time is in a very significant sense implicit in any philosophy of nature. Indeed, the search for a time standard independent of the variation

Time Marks and Clock Corrections: A Century of Seismological Timekeeping

Accurate time measurement is a crucial element of seismic data collection. For data collected before the 1980’s and especially before 1960, the technologies involved are no longer familiar to most

Mystical Crystals of Silica

People split into two different camps—those who believe that crystals have special powers and those who roll their eyes. We (the authors) have long been eye rollers. We are scientists, after all.

Atomichron®: The atomic clock from concept to commercial product

The first half of this paper (Sections I-III) gives an overview of the development of atomic clocks from the earliest suggestions that atoms could provide superlative frequency and time standards to

Fifty years of progress in quartz crystal frequency standards

  • M. E. Frerking
  • Chemistry
    Proceedings of 1996 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium
  • 1996
The progression of developments in crystal frequency standards is traced through the last half century. The paper emphasizes the underlying technical changes and innovations that have driven the

The thermodynamics of clocks

ABSTRACT All clocks, classical or quantum, are open non equilibrium irreversible systems subject to the constraints of thermodynamics. Using examples I show that these constraints necessarily limit

Phase drift on networks of coupled crystal oscillators for precision timing.

TLDR
Results from computer simulations seem to indicate that the standard traveling wave pattern, in which consecutive crystals oscillate out of phase by 2π/N, where N is the network size, leads to phase drift error that decreases as 1/N as opposed to 1/sqrt[N] for an uncoupled ensemble.

War and Peacetime Research on the Road to Crystal Frequency Control

Crystal frequency control, an essential ingredient in the electronics revolution, was invented in the aftermath of World War I by Walter Cady. Cady exploited his thorough knowledge of a scientific

SPECTRAL LINES AS FREQUENCY STANDARDS

  • Harold Lyons
  • Physics
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1952
TLDR
Although the problems involved in the design of accurate and reliable frequency and time standards are somewhat different, these two topics will be dealt with together since a clock can be used as a frequencyStandard while a frequency standard by itself will not read time.

Towards a 229Th-Based Nuclear Clock

TLDR
An overview of the current status of the development of a nuclear clock based on the state of lowest known nuclear excitation energy in 229Th is presented and potential candidates for nuclear clocks other than 229Th are discussed.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 47 REFERENCES

A New Quartz-Crystal Plate, Designated the GT, Which Produces a Very Constant Frequency over a Wide Temperature Range

In this paper, a new quartz-crystal plate, designated the GT, is described which produces a very constant frequency over a wide temperature range. This crystal does not change by more than one part

Gravity‐measurements on the U.S.S. Barracuda

Measurements of gravity at sea, accurate enough to be of value in the problems of geodesy and geology, were first made by F. A. Vening Meinesz in 1923. Since that time Vening Meinesz has perfected

THE CRYSTAL CLOCK.

  • W. A. Marrison
  • Mathematics
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1930
'Gesammelte Werke, 1876, p. 261. 2 The Latin indices h, i, j,. . . range through the values 1, 2, ... n, the Greek a, jS, y.. . through 1, 2, . .. m, and the Greek or, a, T, . . . through m + 1, m +

Precision Determination of Frequency

TLDR
Two different types of standard which meet the requirement that their rates shall be so constant that the total number of variations executed in a time of known duration may be taken as a measure of the rate over shorter intervals of time are described.

Modern developments in precision clocks

ULTRA-PRECISE practical timekeepers of today can be placed within two classes, depending upon whether the restoring force is gravity, as in pendulum clocks, or elasticity, as in quartz crystal

A new form of frequency and time standard

A description is given of a new form of quartz oscillator, designed to give a high frequency-stability under conditions of operation demanding little attention. It consists of a cylindrical quartz

A standard of frequency and its applications

TLDR
The paper discusses the importance of frequency standardization to the telecommunication engineer, and outlines the work which the Post Office has carried out in this field, and the development work now being carried out to improve the stability and reliability of the standard.

The Status of Frequency Standardization

  • J. Dellinger
  • Engineering
    Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers
  • 1928
The measurement of frequency, hitherto of laboratory interest only, has become of first-rank importance in reducing radio interference. This has come about through the increasing use of all available

The Inversion Spectrum of Ammonia

Ammonia gas is known to exhibit a strong absorption in the region of 0.8 ${\mathrm{cm}}^{\ensuremath{-}1}$. By sweeping the frequency of a continuous wave oscillator and using a balanced wave guide

The High Q of Quartz Resonators

An early report of very high Q's was given by one of the authors before limiting conditions of surface cleanliness had been attained. Later measurements found the Q of a Y‐cut etched quartz ring