The evolution of senescence in natural populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata): a comparative approach

@article{Reznick2001TheEO,
  title={The evolution of senescence in natural populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata): a comparative approach},
  author={David N. Reznick and Galen Buckwalter and Joseph M Groff and David H. Elder},
  journal={Experimental Gerontology},
  year={2001},
  volume={36},
  pages={791-812}
}
The Evolution of Senescence and Post-Reproductive Lifespan in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)
TLDR
The hypothesis that differences in lifespan evolving in response to selection are confined to the reproductive lifespan, or those segments of the life history that make a direct contribution to fitness is supported.
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A key goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the maintenance of trait variation in nature. This paper explores the ecology, trait variation, and possible adaptation of Trinidad guppies
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The nature and magnitude of predator-induced mortality are comparable to those caused by commercial fishing and support arguments that humans, like predators, have acted as an agent of selec- tion when exploiting populations of fish.
Aging reduces reproductive success in mussels Mytilus edulis
Predation by Bears Drives Senescence in Natural Populations of Salmon
TLDR
It is found that the degree of condition dependence in extrinsic mortality was very important in driving senescence: populations where bears selectively killed fish showing advancedsenescence were those that senesced least rapidly.
Rapid evolution in response to increased temperature maintains population viability despite genetic erosion in a tropical ectotherm
TLDR
Investigation of population demographics and the evolutionary response of life history traits, as well as genetic diversity in guppies in response to an experimentally increased temperature found no sign of an evolutionary response in these traits after 24 months of exposure to the increased temperature.
Senescence and food limitation in a slowly ageing spider
TLDR
Although 2Y females foraged less actively than younger females, 2Y did not improve their performance relative to 1Y following food supplementation, which provides evidence for reproductive senescence in a natural spider population.
Constraints on Adaptive Evolution: The Functional Trade‐Off between Reproduction and Fast‐Start Swimming Performance in the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata)
TLDR
This work examines the consequences of adaptive life‐history evolution on locomotor performance in the live‐bearing guppy and finds evidence for adaptive but constrained evolution of fast‐start swimming performance in laboratory trials conducted on second‐generation lab‐reared fish.
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References

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TLDR
Estimating the mortality rates of guppies in natural populations reveals mortality patterns that provide a potential cause of natural selection, but expand, rather than narrow, the number of possible mechanisms responsible for life‐history evolution in guppie.
Life-History Evolution in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata: Poeciliidae). IV. Parallelism in Life-History Phenotypes
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The life-history phenotypes of guppies from the north slope communities are compared and it is found that the high- and low-predation contrasts are remarkably similar to those reported earlier for the south slope communities.
Life-History Evolution in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata: Poeciliidae). V. Genetic Basis of Parallelism in Life Histories
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A combination of the geographical breadth of the first study and the greater depth of this study provides a more complete picture of interpopulation variation in guppy life-history patterns.
Altitudinal variation for senescence in Melanoplus grasshoppers
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It is suggested that high-elevation populations have evolved accelerated senescence as a direct or an indirect result of selection on reproductive schedules, which are potentially truncated by severe winter conditions at the elevated sites.
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Test the theory of senescence with natural populations of the Daphnia pulex‐pulicaria species complex, a group of freshwater zooplankton that spans an environmental gradient of habitat permanence, and observes negative genetic correlations between r and indices of life‐history timing, suggesting trade‐offs between early‐ and late‐life performance.
LIFE‐HISTORY EVOLUTION IN GUPPIES (POECILIA RETICULATA): 1. PHENOTYPIC AND GENETIC CHANGES IN AN INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENT
TLDR
This work hypothesized that genetic differences in guppy life histories were associated with differences in predation and theoretical treatments of such differences in survival predict the observed trends in age at maturity and reproductive effort.
THE IMPACT OF PREDATION ON LIFE HISTORY EVOLUTION IN TRINIDADIAN GUPPIES (POECILIA RETICULATA)
TLDR
Empirical studies have sought correlations between life histories and potential sources of demographic selection and, in some cases, have attempted to determine if the organisms have evolved as predicted by theory, but few have achieved either goal.
Evaluation of the Rate of Evolution in Natural Populations of Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)
TLDR
The resulting rate of evolution of age and size at maturity was similar to rates typically obtained for traits subjected to artificial selection in laboratory settings and up to seven orders of magnitude greater than rates inferred from the paleontological record.
THE IMPACT OF PREDATION ON LIFE HISTORY EVOLUTION IN TRINIDADIAN GUPPIES: GENETIC BASIS OF OBSERVED LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS
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    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
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TLDR
Establishing this genetic basis to observed interpopulation differences in life histories is fundamental to concluding that these differences are an evolved response to demographic selection.
Experimentally induced life-history evolution in a natural population
TLDR
The findings of a long-term study of guppies are reported, in which the predictions of life-history theory are supported, and it is proved that predation caused this pattern, by changingpredation against adults to predation against juveniles.
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