The evolution of primate visual self-recognition: evidence of absence in lesser apes

@article{Suddendorf2009TheEO,
  title={The evolution of primate visual self-recognition: evidence of absence in lesser apes},
  author={Thomas Suddendorf and Emma Collier-Baker},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences},
  year={2009},
  volume={276},
  pages={1671 - 1677}
}
Mirror self-recognition typically emerges in human children in the second year of life and has been documented in great apes. In contrast to monkeys, humans and great apes can use mirrors to inspect unusual marks on their body that cannot be seen directly. Here we show that lesser apes (family Hylobatidae) fail to use the mirror to find surreptitiously placed marks on their head, in spite of being strongly motivated to retrieve directly visible marks from the mirror surface itself and from… 

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