The evolution of planetary nebulae - VIII. True expansion rates and visibility times

@article{Jacob2013TheEO,
  title={The evolution of planetary nebulae - VIII. True expansion rates and visibility times},
  author={R. Jacob and D. Schoenberner and M. Steffen},
  journal={Astronomy and Astrophysics},
  year={2013},
  volume={558}
}
The visibility time of planetary nebulae (PNe) in stellar systems is an essential quantity for estimating the size of a PN population in the context of general population studies. For instance, it enters directly into the PN death rate determination. The basic ingredient for determining visibility times is the typical nebular expansion velocity, as a suited average over all PN sizes of a PN population within a certain volume or stellar system. The true expansion speed of the outer nebular edge… Expand
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