The evolution of metazoan α-carbonic anhydrases and their roles in calcium carbonate biomineralization

  title={The evolution of metazoan $\alpha$-carbonic anhydrases and their roles in calcium carbonate biomineralization},
  author={Nathalie Le Roy and Daniel J. Jackson and Benjamin Marie and Paula Ramos-Silva and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Marin},
  journal={Frontiers in Zoology},
The carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC superfamily is a class of ubiquitous metallo-enzymes that catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. The α-CA family, present in all metazoan clades, is a key enzyme involved in a wide range of physiological functions including pH regulation, respiration, photosynthesis, and biocalcification. This paper reviews the evolution of the α-CA family, with an emphasis on metazoan α-CA members involved in biocalcification. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a… 

Carbonic Anhydrase and Metazoan Biocalcification: A Focus on Molluscs

It is shown that the evolution of this protein super-family has a complex history with origins at the dawn of the Phanerozoic, using a simplified phylogeny from compiled CA sequence data of several metazoans.

Carbonic Anhydrases in Cnidarians: Novel Perspectives from the Octocorallian Corallium rubrum

Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of α-CAs, identified in six representative cnidarians with complete genome, support an independent recruitment ofalpha carbonic anhydrase related protein (CARP) for biomineralization within anthozoans.

Expression and Localization of Carbonic Anhydrase Genes in the Serpulid Polychaete Hydroides elegans

The metalloenzyme, carbonic anhydrase (CA), catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate, and is responsible for biomineralization processes in animals. In the Annelida, the

The Evolutionary History of Daphniid α-Carbonic Anhydrase within Animalia

This present study attempts to elucidate the evolutionary history of the α-CA superfamily, with particular interest in the emerging model aquatic organism Daphnia pulex, and finds that, contrary to expectations, amino acid conservation with bacterial α-CAs supports the supposition that extracellular α-cAs are the ancestral state of animal α- CAs.

Carbonic Anhydrases: An Ancient Tool in Calcareous Sponge Biomineralization

The understanding of the role and the evolution of a key biomineralization gene in calcareous sponges is extended with this study, which indicates that the last common ancestor of Calcarea had four ancestral CAs with defined subcellular localizations and functions.

Evolution and diversity of alpha-carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

Data indicate that MgNACR is a major α–CA enzyme in mantle and that by homology with oyster nacreins likely regulates mussel shell production, and it is proposed that species-dependent α-CA evolution may contribute to explain the diversity of bivalve shell structures and their vulnerability to environmental changes.

Comparison of the Anion Inhibition Profiles of the α-CA Isoforms (SpiCA1, SpiCA2 and SpiCA3) from the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata

SpiCA3 is the most effective CA among the coral isoforms investigated and the most efficient catalyst known up to date in Metazoa, suggesting that S. pistillata has adapted its CA isoforms to achieve the physiological functions in different physicochemical microenvironments.

Carbonic anhydrase is involved in calcification by the benthic foraminifer Amphistegina lessonii

Abstract. Marine calcification is an important component of the global carbon cycle. The mechanism by which some organisms take up inorganic carbon for the production of their shells or skeletons,

Carbonic anhydrase is involved in benthic foraminiferal calcification

Abstract. Marine calcification is an important component of the global carbon cycle. The mechanism by which some organisms take up inorganic carbon for the production of their shells or skeletons,

The diversity of molecular mechanisms of carbonate biomineralization by bacteria

A large number of cases illustrating the three different modes of bacterially-mediated CaCO3 mineralization are listed, which shows the broad diversity of metabolic pathways, organic molecules and thereby microorganisms that can biomineralize Ca CO3.



Evolution of carbonic anhydrases in fungi

A phylogenetic analysis of 97 fungal CA sequences is presented that addresses the diversification of fungal CAs and revealed that during the evolution of filamentous ascomycetes, a gene encoding the plant-type β-CA was duplicated, resulting in two closely related isoforms.

A New Coral Carbonic Anhydrase in Stylophora pistillata

Owing to its intracellular localisation in the oral endoderm and in the aboral tissue, it is proposed that STPCA-2 is involved in pH regulation and/or inorganic carbon delivery to symbiont and calcification.

A carbonic anhydrase from the nacreous layer in oyster pearls.

The findings suggest that nacrein actually functions as a matrix protein whose repeated Gly-Xaa-Asn domain possibly binds calcium and as a carbonic anhydrase that catalyzes the HCO3- formation, thus participating in calcium carbonate crystal formation of the nacreous layer.

Two Atypical Carbonic Anhydrase Homologs From the Planula Larva of the Scleractinian Coral Fungia scutaria

This work identifies two CA cDNA sequences from the planula larvae of the Hawaiian scleractinian coral Fungia scutaria that could play a role in the onset of calcification during metamorphosis and describes the first description of a short form of CA.

An overview of the alpha-, beta- and gamma-carbonic anhydrases from Bacteria: can bacterial carbonic anhydrases shed new light on evolution of bacteria?

It is proposed that bacterial CAs can be used as markers for understanding the evolution and genetic variability of the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications.

  • N. Le RoyB. Marie F. Marin
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of experimental zoology. Part B, Molecular and developmental evolution
  • 2012
Using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, two CAs are identified and characterized that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue and analyzed in a phylogenetic context.

The gamma class of carbonic anhydrases.

  • J. Ferry
  • Biology
    Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • 2010

Sponge Paleogenomics Reveals an Ancient Role for Carbonic Anhydrase in Skeletogenesis

The coralline demosponge Astrosclera willeyana is used, a "living fossil" that has survived from the Mesozoic, to provide insight into the evolution of the ability to biocalcify, and it is shown that the α-CA family expanded from a single ancestral gene through several independent gene-duplication events in sponges and eumetazoans.

Carbonic Anhydrase: New Insights for an Ancient Enzyme* 210

The comparison of sequences and crystal structures of the mammalian and plant enzymes demonstrates that they evolved independently and have been designated the and -class, respectively.

Carbonic Anhydrase in the Scleractinian Coral Stylophora pistillata

STPCA is a secreted form of α-CA, which possesses a CA catalytic function, similar to the secreted human CAVI, and its localization at the calicoblastic ectoderm level supports the role of STPCA in the calcification process.