The evolution of life cycle complexity in aphids: Ecological optimization or historical constraint?

Abstract

For decades, biologists have debated why many parasites have obligate multihost life cycles. Here, we use comparative phylogenetic analyses of aphids to evaluate the roles of ecological optimization and historical constraint in the evolution of life cycle complexity. If life cycle complexity is adaptive, it should be evolutionarily labile, that is, change… (More)
DOI: 10.1111/evo.12643

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