The evolution of flowers with deep corolla tubes

@article{Nilsson1988TheEO,
  title={The evolution of flowers with deep corolla tubes},
  author={L. Anders Nilsson},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1988},
  volume={334},
  pages={147-149}
}
Some plants have evolved flowers of extraordinary depth, a phenomenon which puzzled Darwin1. Darwin suggested that the evolution of deep flowers could be a response to a kind of 'race' with pollinating insects: the length of the tongues of pollinating insects could increase as a result of a general size increase, or because it increased their nectar foraging efficiency. As this occurred, plants with relatively shallow flowers could be disadvantaged since pollen transfer, which is effected by… Expand
Resource Competition, Character Displacement, and the Evolution of Deep Corolla Tubes
TLDR
Combining optimal foraging theory and quantitative genetics in a spatially explicit, individual‐based model shows that flowers with long corolla tubes can alternatively evolve because they promote resource partitioning among nectar feeders and increase the probability of conspecific pollen transfer. Expand
MANIPULATION OF FEMALE ARCHITECTURE IN FLOWERS REVEALS A NARROW OPTIMUM FOR POLLEN DEPOSITION
TLDR
Variation in pistil length was associated with a pronounced optimum in pollen deposition, which was attained by only a narrow range of pistil variants of intermediate length, which suggest that stabilizing selection may maintain the architectural invariability of animal-pollinated flowers. Expand
Resource Competition Triggers the Co-Evolution of Long Tongues and Deep Corolla Tubes
TLDR
Co-evolution between tongue length and corolla-tube depth is a robust outcome of the model, but it requires that tongue elongation is substantially easier for one pollinator species than for the other, that pollinators follow a near-optimal foraging strategy, and that plants experience pollination limitation. Expand
Going to great lengths: selection for long corolla tubes in an extremely specialized bat–flower mutualism
TLDR
By demonstrating that bats select for increasing flower length, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that A. fistulata evolved its remarkable tongue in a coevolutionary race with long-tubed flowers similar to that envisioned by Darwin. Expand
Selection toward shorter flowers by butterflies whose probosces are shorter than floral tubes.
TLDR
A reduction in pollinator efficiency is experimentally demonstrated with an increasing difference between proboscis length and floral tube length, indicating a relationship is a prerequisite for the evolution of floral shape in response to pollinator morphology. Expand
FLIES AND FLOWERS IN DARWIN'S RACE
TLDR
It is found that in each community a core group of long-tubed plant species might together be involved in diffuse coevolution with the fly, and in poorly matched populations, the imbalance in armament is too great to allow reciprocal selection to act, and these species might instead experience one-sided selection that leads to convergence with the core species. Expand
Pollination and the evolution of floral traits : selected studies in the Cape flora
TLDR
The role of pollinators in the evolution of floral traits in selected Cape plants is determined, and a better understanding of the relationship between floral adaptation and speciation is reached, to establish a set of testable hypotheses. Expand
Conflict of evolutionary interests between plants and pollinators revealed through functional exploration of flower morphospace
TLDR
It is found that the two parties have almost opposite interests in corolla curvature evolution, with non-overlapping fitness peaks in flower morphospace, suggesting that the evolutionary radiation of flowering plants and their pollinators could be the result of conflict instead of mutualism. Expand
Morphospace exploration reveals divergent fitness optima between plants and pollinators
TLDR
Contrary to the expectation that the same flower morphology maximizes the fitness of both plant and pollinator, it is found that the two parties have divergent optima for corolla curvature, with non-overlapping fitness peaks in flower morphospace. Expand
Bilabiate flowers: the ultimate response to bees?
TLDR
Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely, indicating the high selection pressure towards the bilabiate syndrome. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 12 REFERENCES
HAWKMOTHS AND THE GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF FLORAL VARIATION IN AQUILEGIA CAERULEA
  • Russell B. Miller
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1981
TLDR
This paper examines the geographic distribution of flower color and spur length in populations of Aquilegia caerulea, the Colorado Columbine, in western North America and considers these patterns of floral variation in relation to the composition of the pollinator fauna in different portions of the range of the species. Expand
Behavior of Hawkmoths on Flowers of Datura meteloides
TLDR
Datura meteloides is pollinated mainly by long-tongued hawkmoths: Manduca quinquemaculata, M. sexta, and Hyles lineata and such alkaloids may well occur in the nectar also. Expand
Angraecoid orchids and hawkmothe in central Madagascar: specialized pollination systems and generalist foragers
TLDR
A considerable guild of Malagasy plants exists that exploit the fuel demands of long-tongued hawkmoths, and a corresponding guild of plants with long nectar spurs or corolla tubes should exist. Expand
Hawk‐moth scale analysis and pollination specialization in the epilithic Malagasy endemic Aerangis ellisii (Reichenb. fil.) Schltr. (Orchidaceae)
TLDR
The pollination biology of the epilithic endemic Aerangis ellisii was studied on an inselberg in the Antananarivo region, central Madagascar and seems to display a relatively moderate specialization versus the Malagasy hawk-moth guild since its nectar is accessible even to those long-proboscis hawk- moth species which are not able to act as pollinators. Expand
Monophily and pollination mechanisms in Angraecum arachnites Schltr. (Orchidaceae) in a guild of long-tongued hawk-moths (Sphingidae) in Madagascar
TLDR
Anthecological relations between a long-spurred angraecoid orchid and pollinating Sphingidae are documented for the first time and the monophily in A. arachnites is interpreted as a result of a refined long-term specialization developed within an archaic evolutionary relationship in a relatively stable environment. Expand
Hawkmoth pollination of Mirabilis longiflora (Nyctaginaceae).
  • V. Grant, K. Grant
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1983
TLDR
Mirabilis longiflora, a member of the guild with a tube 10.0-10.5 cm long, was found to be visited and pollinated mainly by Manduca quinquemaculata with a proboscis 10.7-11.6 cm long in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. Expand
The Systematic and Geographical Distribution of Hawkmoth Flowers in the Temperate North American Flora
TLDR
Temperate North American sphingophilous plant species fall into two classes in terms of their floristic affinities: subtropical or tropical species that extend north into the southern part of the United States, and new indigenous species that have evolved in temperate North America. Expand
Processes of isolation and introgressive interplay between Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich and P. chlorantha (Custer) Reichb. (Orchidaceae)
TLDR
Platanthera bifolia and P. chlorantha are highly specialized for pollination by crepuscular and nocturnal Lepidoptera and are largely sympatric, have overlapping flowering-times, and are completely interfertile. Expand
Experimental Studies on Male and Female Reproductive Success: Effects of Variation in Spur Length and Pollinator Activity on Platanthera mandarinorum ssp. hachijoensis (Orchidaceae)
TLDR
Results of the bagging experiments indicated that female RS was greater than male RS in cases of high pollen carryover, and individuals with different spur lengths in natural populations have nearly equal probabilities of RS after excluding the extreme variants through the reduction of male RS. Expand
Nomenclatural notes upon Scandinavian orchids
TLDR
Some nomenclatural problems of Pseudorchis and Platanthera are discussed and the differences between P. bifolia and ssp. Expand
...
1
2
...