The evolution of evidence hierarchies: what can Bradford Hill's 'guidelines for causation' contribute?

@article{Howick2009TheEO,
  title={The evolution of evidence hierarchies: what can Bradford Hill's 'guidelines for causation' contribute?},
  author={Jeremy Howick and Paul G Glasziou and Jeffrey K Aronson},
  journal={Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine},
  year={2009},
  volume={102 5},
  pages={
          186-94
        }
}
High quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (concealed allocation, relevant groups blinded and sufficiently powered, etc.) will usually provide sufficient evidence to establish that a particular treatment caused an outcome. Yet sufficiently well{conducted RCTs are rare. Trials can be under{powered, or unsuccessfully blinded, and often suffer from many undetected biases. The results of most RCTs are therefore often insufficient to establish causation. At the same time, RCTs are often not… CONTINUE READING
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