The evolution of cooperation.

@article{Axelrod1981TheEO,
  title={The evolution of cooperation.},
  author={Robert Axelrod and William D. Hamilton},
  journal={Science},
  year={1981},
  volume={211 4489},
  pages={
          1390-6
        }
}
Cooperation in organisms, whether bacteria or primates, has been a difficulty for evolutionary theory since Darwin. On the assumption that interactions between pairs of individuals occur on a probabilistic basis, a model is developed based on the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy in the context of the Prisoner's Dilemma game. Deductions from the model, and the results of a computer tournament show how cooperation based on reciprocity can get started in an asocial world, can thrive… 

Figures from this paper

Darwin and the Evolution of Human Cooperation

TLDR
This chapter offers an overview of different approaches to this topic (such as kin selection, group selection, direct and indirect reciprocity) and relates it to some of the views that Darwin expressed over 150 years ago.

Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

TLDR
Five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation are discussed: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocities, network reciprocation, group selection, and group selection.

The Ecology of Cooperation

TLDR
Computer simulations are employed to uncover how these processes govern the oscillating and open-ended evolution of alternative forms of behaviour in the evolutionary approach to the repeated prisoner's dilemma.

Emergence of cooperation and evolutionary stability in finite populations

TLDR
It is shown that a single cooperator using a strategy like ‘tit-for-tat’ can invade a population of defectors with a probability that corresponds to a net selective advantage.

The coevolution of choosiness and cooperation

TLDR
This model uses evolutionary simulations to show that, in a situation where individuals have the opportunity to engage in repeated pairwise interactions, the equilibrium degree of cooperativeness depends critically on the amount of behavioural variation that is being maintained in the population by processes such as mutation.

Evolution, Selfishness and Cooperation

TLDR
It is concluded that the proposed mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation are either too limited in scope, unstable, or insufficiently detailed, and that the analysis must therefore go beyond the level of purely genetic evolution if human "ultrasociality" is to be explained.

Evolutionary dynamics of cooperation

TLDR
Five basic principles for the evolution of cooperation are presented, which arise in the theories of kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocities, graph selection and group selection.

Segregation and the Evolution of Cooperation

Thirty years have passed since Robert Axelrod and William Hamilton published their influential contribution to the problem of cooperation. They showed, with the help of both an experiment and

Predation promotes cooperation in Prisoner’s dilemma games

The robustness of altruism as an evolutionary strategy

TLDR
This paper presents the results of a series of simple replicator simulations, run on variations of the 2–player prisoner's dilemma, designed to illustrate the wide range of scenarios under which altruism proves to be robust under evolutionary pressures.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 306 REFERENCES

The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I.

The Emergence of Cooperation among Egoists

  • R. Axelrod
  • Economics
    American Political Science Review
  • 1981
This article investigates the conditions under which cooperation will emerge in a world of egoists without central authority. This problem plays an important role in such diverse fields as political

The theory of games and the evolution of animal conflicts.

  • J. M. Smith
  • Psychology
    Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1974

Selfish genes, evolutionary games, and the adaptiveness of behaviour

TLDR
Dr Parker discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the sociobiology approach, and illustrates that behaviour can be adapted in a complex way in conformity with sociobiological theory.

Altruism and Related Phenomena, Mainly in Social Insects

TLDR
With better knowledge of heredity and with more facts regarding the social insects to draw upon, Weismann recognized the possible conflict between intergroup and intragroup selection in the evolution of worker attributes.

On the evolution of Ape Social Systems

Despite theoretical advances in understanding the nature of social evolution (e.g. Hamilton, 1964; Trivers, 1972) a clear procedure for analysing the adaptive functions of social life has not yet

When Doves Conspire: Evolution of Nondamaging Fighting Tactics in a Nonrandom-Encounter Animal Conflict Model

  • R. Fagen
  • Biology
    The American Naturalist
  • 1980
TLDR
Analysis of two game-theory models demonstrates that assortative encounters favor evolution of pure conventional fighting tactics, and that a "conspiracy of doves" can be an evolutionarily stable population under these conditions.

How does selection reconcile individual advantage with the good of the group?

  • E. Leigh
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1977
TLDR
It is shown how selection within populations may reconcile individual and group advantage, as in the evolution of "honest meioses" resistant to segregation distortion, and the avoidance of the "cost of sex".

The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism

  • R. Trivers
  • Psychology
    The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1971
A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the
...