The evolution of cooperation.

@article{Axelrod1981TheEO,
  title={The evolution of cooperation.},
  author={Robert Axelrod and William David Hamilton},
  journal={Science},
  year={1981},
  volume={211 4489},
  pages={
          1390-6
        }
}
Cooperation in organisms, whether bacteria or primates, has been a difficulty for evolutionary theory since Darwin. On the assumption that interactions between pairs of individuals occur on a probabilistic basis, a model is developed based on the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy in the context of the Prisoner's Dilemma game. Deductions from the model, and the results of a computer tournament show how cooperation based on reciprocity can get started in an asocial world, can thrive… CONTINUE READING

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Leaves from a Field Note-Book (London: Macmillan, 1916)

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The First Hundred Thousand (London: Wm

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