The evolution of brain activation during temporal processing

  title={The evolution of brain activation during temporal processing},
  author={Stephen M. Rao and Andrew R. Mayer and Deborah L. Harrington},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
Timing is crucial to many aspects of human performance. To better understand its neural underpinnings, we used event-related fMRI to examine the time course of activation associated with different components of a time perception task. We distinguished systems associated with encoding time intervals from those related to comparing intervals and implementing a response. Activation in the basal ganglia occurred early, and was uniquely associated with encoding time intervals, whereas cerebellar… 
Formulating representations of time: an event-related fMRI study
The neural underpinnings of temporal cognition were studied by distinguishing brain activation related to encoding time intervals from activation associated with discriminating intervals, and the striatum and right inferior parietal cortex in clock processes and the medial temporal lobes in encoding and retrieval of interval representations were implicated.
Neural representation of interval encoding and decision making.
Cerebro-cerebellar Interactions Underlying Temporal Information Processing
The involvement of cerebro-cerebellar interactions may provide supportive evidence that temporal information processing relies on the simulation of timing information through feed-forward computation in the cerebellum.
Different Brain Circuits Underlie Motor and Perceptual Representations of Temporal Intervals
The findings point to a role for the parietal cortex as an interface between sensory and motor processes and suggest that it may be a key node in translation of temporal information into action, and discuss the potential importance of the extrastriate cortex in processing visual time in the context of recent findings.
Effect of task difficulty on the functional anatomy of temporal processing
Timing of cortical activation: a latency-resolved event-related functional MR imaging study.
The onset of activation showed no direct correlation with the overall RTs of the subjects, leading one to suggest that the peripheral motor unit may have a greater impact on RT than the central contribution.
Functional Development of Fronto-Striato-Parietal Networks Associated with Time Perception
Age-dependent developmentally dissociated neural networks for time discrimination are demonstrated, with progressive recruitment of later maturing left hemispheric and lateralized fronto-parieto-striato-thalamic networks known to mediate time discrimination in adults.
Neural networks engaged in milliseconds and seconds time processing: evidence from transcranial magnetic stimulation and patients with cortical or subcortical dysfunction
It is concluded that the contribution of these strongly interconnected anatomical structures in time processing is not fixed, depending not only on the duration of the time interval to be assessed by the brain, but also on the cognitive set, the chosen task and the stimulus modality.


Temporal dynamics of brain activation during a working memory task
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to examine brain activation in human subjects during performance of a working memory task and to show that prefrontal cortex along with parietal cortex appears to play a role in active maintenance.
Neural Underpinnings of Temporal Processing: Α Review of Focal Lesion, Pharmacological, and Functional Imaging Research
Two influential models are described which suggest timing deficits may be due to impairments in a timekeeping mechanism or various nontemporal processes such as motor implementation, memory, and attention.
Cerebellar dysfunctions of temporal processing in the seconds range in humans
THE roles of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in timing remain subject to debate. It has been suggested that temporal range may dissociate them, since cerebellar research has focused on intervals of
Effects of divided attention on temporal processing in patients with lesions of the cerebellum or frontal lobe.
Dissociation suggests that deficits on temporal processing tasks observed in frontal patients can be related to the attention demands of such tasks; cerebellar patients have a more specific problem related to timing.
Cortical Networks Underlying Mechanisms of Time Perception
Results implicate a right hemisphere prefrontal–inferior parietal network in timing and suggest time-dependent attention and working memory functions may contribute to temporal perception deficits observed after damage to this network.
Distributed Neural Systems Underlying the Timing of Movements
The results suggest that the internal generation of precisely timed movements is dependent on three interrelated neural systems, one that is involved in explicit timing (putamen, ventrolateral thalamus, SMA), one that mediates auditory sensory memory (IFG, STG), and another that is involvement in sensorimotor processing (dorsal dentate nucleus, sensorim motor cortex).
Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes.
The human frontal cortex helps mediate working memory, a system that is used for temporary storage and manipulation of information and that is involved in many higher cognitive functions. Working
Cerebellar Contributions to Motor Timing: A PET Study of Auditory and Visual Rhythm Reproduction
Test of hypothesized central control of temporal processing and the roles of the cerebellum, BG, and sensory association areas found to be involved in modality-specific encoding and retrieval of the temporal stimuli point to the participation of a number of neural structures in the production of a timed motor response from an external stimulus.