The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies

@article{Als2004TheEO,
  title={The evolution of alternative parasitic life histories in large blue butterflies},
  author={Thomas Damm Als and Roger Vila and Nikolai P. Kandul and David R. Nash and Shen-horn Yen and Yu Feng Hsu and Andre A. Mignault and Jacobus J. Boomsma and Naomi E. Pierce},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={432},
  pages={386-390}
}
Large blue (Maculinea) butterflies are highly endangered throughout the Palaearctic region, and have been the focus of intense conservation research. In addition, their extraordinary parasitic lifestyles make them ideal for studies of life history evolution. Early instars consume flower buds of specific host plants, but later instars live in ant nests where they either devour the brood (predators), or are fed mouth-to-mouth by the adult ants (cuckoos). Here we present the phylogeny for the… Expand
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