The evolution of “egalitarian” and “despotic” social systems among macaques

  title={The evolution of “egalitarian” and “despotic” social systems among macaques},
  author={Shūichi Matsumura},
Recent studies of captive macaques have revealed considerable inter-species differences in dominance styles among females. In “egalitarian” species such as stumptail (Macaca arctoides) or tonkean macaques (M. tonkeana), social interactions are more symmetrical and less kin-biased than in “despotic” species such as Japanese (M. fuscata) or rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). Field observations of moor macaques (M. maurus), close relatives of tonkean macaques, suggest that tolerance during feeding… 
The Myth of Despotism and Nepotism: Dominance and Kinship in Matrilineal Societies of Macaques
In egalitarian macaques, differences in behavior of dominant and subordinate individuals are relatively small and Nepotistic tendencies in cooperative or affiliative interactions are not recognized clearly.
Intraspecific Differences in Social Structure of the Japanese Macaques: A Revival of Lost Legacy by Updated Knowledge and Perspective
The current socioecological models were developed to identify the type of food competition via ecological factors affecting female social relationships in primates (Wrangham 1980; van Schaik 1989;
Intraspecies variation in dominance style of Macaca fuscata
Comparing the dominance styles among three provisioned, free-ranging groups of Japanese macaques at Shodoshima Island, Takasakiyama Mountain and Shiga Heights, and collecting standard data on aggressive and affiliative behavior, suggests broad intraspecific variation of dominance style in Japanese macaque as can be seen in some other primate species.
Avoidant social style among wild crested macaque males (Macaca nigra) in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia
The social style of crested males is described as ‘avoidant’, which may reflect tense relationships due to high levels of risky reproductive competition, and be a mixture of tolerant and despotic indicators.
Targets and Tactics of Play Fighting: Competitive versus Cooperative Styles of Play in Japanese and Tonkean Macaques
A detailed analysis of videotaped sequences of juvenile play fighting in Tonkean and Japanese macaques suggested that differences in styles of attack anddefense in play fighting may be influenced by differences in the species' social systems.
Social and Life History Strategies of Tibetan Macaques at Mt. Huangshan
It is argued that some of the unique features of their life history and sociality, such as bridging behavior and male social relationships, offer opportunities for additional comparative studies in macaque social evolution and beyond.
Tibetan Macaque Social Style: Covariant and Quasi-independent Evolution
This chapter describes how a mixture of both despotic and tolerant social style traits in Tibetan macaques provides evidence for quasi- independent adaptive evolution, and suggests that aspects of macaque social style appear to be shaped both by underlying influences of ancestry on linked traits and by quasi-independent, adaptive responses by animals to variation in current conditions.
Group size, contest competition, and social structure in Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques
These findings are broadly consistent with several previous comparative tests of the model on other primate taxa that found strong links between group size, ecological factors and contest competitive regimes, but little or no evidence of links with social structure.
A resident-nepotistic-tolerant dominance style in wild white-nosed coatis (Nasua narica)?
The results suggest some similarities between coatis and despotic-tolerant primate species, at least under particular ecological circumstances, and their potential for affording a deeper understanding on the sources of variation in mammal social systems is discussed.


Tonkean macaque behaviour from the perspective of the evolution of Sulawesi macaques
The study of Tonkean macaques produced a set of data which departs from what was considered as the norm for the genus Macaca, allowing a broader perspective on macaque social evolution.
Differential kinship effect on reconciliation in three species of macaques (Macaca fascicularis, M. fuscata, and M. sylvanus).
The hypothesis that kinship effects on reconciliation are stronger the more despotic the species is is confirmed, and differences in reconciliation frequency between kin and nonkin were less pronounced among the less despotic Barbary macaques.
Relaxed Dominance Relations among Female Moor Macaques (Macaca maurus) in Their Natural Habitat, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
The ecological model of van Schaik does not provide an adequate explanation for the egalitarian relations among female moor macaques, and differences of dominance styles seemed to be found most apparently in intragroup spacing during feeding.
Dominance style of Japanese macaques compared with rhesus and stumptail macaques
The Japanese macaque group showed a lower rate of approach with a higher proportion of negative outcomes than either of the other species, suggesting a strict hierarchy while maintaining an optimal nearest‐neighbor distance.
A Comparative Study of Aggression and Conciliation in Three Cercopithecine Monkeys (Macaca Fuscata, Macaca Nigra, Papio Papio)
The present results suggest that the covariation between conciliation rates, degree of symmetry in conflicts and level of intensity in aggression may stem from phylogenetic constraints.
Toward a comparative socioecology of the genus Macaca: Different dominance styles in rhesus and stumptail monkeys
Comparisons with a second rhesus group, and with published reports, suggest that while some of the observed differences are probably representative of the two species, considerable intraspecific variation does exist, and a more comprehensive program of comparative studies is needed.
Ecology of female social relationships: Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) and the van Schaik model.
  • C. Borries
  • Psychology
    Folia primatologica; international journal of primatology
  • 1993
It appears that hierarchical relationships between females (unstable, inconsistent, individualistic, with low rates of agonistic coalitions) reflect scramble within-group competition.
Competitive regimes and female bonding in two species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi and S. sciureus)
The correlated ecological and social variables found in these two congeners further minimize the minor effects of phylogenetic differences and emphasize the importance of food distribution in determining social characteristics.