The evolution and explosion of massive stars

  title={The evolution and explosion of massive stars},
  author={S. E. Woosley and Alexander Heger and Thomas A. Weaver},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
Like all true stars, massive stars are gravitationally confined thermonuclear reactors whose composition evolves as energy is lost to radiation and neutrinos. Unlike lower-mass stars (M≲8M⊙), however, no point is ever reached at which a massive star can be fully supported by electron degeneracy. Instead, the center evolves to ever higher temperatures, fusing ever heavier elements until a core of iron is produced. The collapse of this iron core to a neutron star releases an enormous amount of… 
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