The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens

  title={The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens},
  author={Daniel E. Lieberman and Brandeis M McBratney and Gail Krovitz},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  pages={1134 - 1139}
Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to “anatomically modern” H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of “archaic” Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the… 

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