This study was planned with the aim to evaluate the pneumoconiosis cases which applied to Social Security High Health Committee between January 1st 1998 and December 31st 2001 for their liability times to be extended. It was a retrospective and descriptive study. Of the 1108 files, only 1068 of them are taken into evaluation with 96.4% of the participation due to the lacking data of some files. The data entry and analysis was done by using SPSS. All of the applicants were male. Most of them applied in 1998 (41.1%, 439 cases) and in 2000 (36.6%, 391 cases). Their average working years were 23.51+/ 0.25. Their average year's of age being diagnosed as pneumoconiosis was 61.81+/-0.8. Of the all cases 764 (72.1%) were diagnosed within the first 10 years after the legal liability time. At this point to reach more conclusive results further epidemiologic studies are required including the factors (the concentration of the dust in the work place besides the physical properties of the dust, the exposure time to the dust and individual properties) affecting the formation of pneumoconiosis. However, even with these findings it is been concluded that the legal time being 10 years in use now for determination of the liability time for the pneumoconiosis cases should be lengthened. It is been also concluded that with the cooperation of other organizations the protocols consisting the issues about the diagnosis criteria of the pneumoconiosis cases, the treatment plan, the determination of disability ratio, liability time, the examinations before getting the job and while working periodically, assessment of the work place risks should be made. Considering the average age being 61.81 for the workers who retired after working dusty work places, carrying the pneumoconiosis risk, they should be checked in regular intervals.