The evaluation and management of shock.


Shock is an emergency that requires continuous bedside evaluation, resuscitation, and re-evaluation. The initial bedside examination allows the clinician to determine whether the patient exhibits a clinical picture that is consistent with hypovolemic, cardiogenic, or vasodilatory shock. The primary survey dictates urgent initial resuscitation that usually consists of intubation, ventilation, and volume support. Vasoactive therapy is started when the patient is well volume-resuscitated and consists of inotropic support for cardiogenic shock and pressor therapy for vasodilatory shock. The secondary survey is helpful in revealing the cause of shock and necessary to institute early definitive therapy. Early shock has a hemodynamic component, which is often easily reversed. Septic shock and prolonged shock from any cause has an inflammatory component, which is not easily reversed and leads to multiple-system organ failure (MSOF) and death. Success in treatment of shock depends on early recognition of shock and the rapid tempo of resuscitation of its hemodynamic component to prevent or minimize the inflammatory component.

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@article{Holmes2003TheEA, title={The evaluation and management of shock.}, author={Cheryl L Holmes and Keith R. Walley}, journal={Clinics in chest medicine}, year={2003}, volume={24 4}, pages={775-89} }