The etiology and prevention of functional instability of the foot.

@article{Freeman1965TheEA,
  title={The etiology and prevention of functional instability of the foot.},
  author={Michael A.R. Freeman and Michael Dean and Iain W.F. Hanham},
  journal={The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume},
  year={1965},
  volume={47 4},
  pages={
          678-85
        }
}
1. Eighty-five patients have been studied soon after a ligamentous injury at the foot or ankle. These patients were treated in one of three ways, and in fifty-six patients the results were evaluated six to fifteen months after injury. 2. It is concluded: a ) that ligamentous injuries at the foot and ankle frequently produce a proprioceptive deficit affecting the muscles of the injured leg; b ) that such a deficit is responsible for the symptom of "giving way" of the foot; and c ) that the… 

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