The ethics of placebo-controlled trials--a middle ground.

@article{Emanuel2001TheEO,
  title={The ethics of placebo-controlled trials--a middle ground.},
  author={Ezekiel J. Emanuel and Franklin G. Miller},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  year={2001},
  volume={345 12},
  pages={915-9}
}
HE first placebo-controlled trial was probably conducted in 1931, when sanocrysin was compared with distilled water for the treatment of tuberculosis. 1 Ever since then, placebo-controlled trials have been controversial, especially when patients randomly assigned to receive placebo have forgone effective treatments. 2-5 Recently, the debate has become polarized. One view, dubbed " placebo orthodoxy " by its opponents, is that methodologic considerations make placebo-controlled trials necessary… CONTINUE READING

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