The eradication of balsam fir stands by white-tailed deer on Anticosti Island, Québec: A 150-year process

  title={The eradication of balsam fir stands by white-tailed deer on Anticosti Island, Qu{\'e}bec: A 150-year process},
  author={François Potvin and Pierre Beaupr{\'e} and Ga{\'e}tan Laprise},
  pages={487 - 495}
Abstract White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were introduced 100 y ago on Anticosti, a 7,943-km2 island located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Québec. The forest of the island is typically boreal and, at the time of the introduction, was dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white spruce (Picea glauca), and black spruce (P. mariana). Since then, the vegetation has been modified as a result of high deer density (16 deer·km-2) and heavy browsing. The most important change is the… 

Impact of introduced white-tailed deer and native insect defoliators on the density and growth of conifer saplings on Anticosti Island, Québec

The combined influence of insect defoliation and deer browsing on fir was evidenced by contrasted patterns in stem growth above and below browsing height, which will likely modify the forest composition from balsam fir- to white spruce-dominated stands.

Importance of balsam fir as winter forage for white-tailed deer at the northeastern limit of their distribution range

The observed patterns of habitat use and the composition of the winter diet confirm the dependence of deer on balsam fir in winter and give additional support to the hypothesis that litterfall from balsAM fir provides an alternate food source sustaining high deer density in a boreal forest without predators.

Fairy slipper (Calypso bulbosa) on Anticosti Island: the occurrence of a rare plant in an environment strongly modified by white-tailed deer

It is hypothesized that on Anticosti Island, the fairy slipper is restricted to old-growth fir stands located on calcareous soils; consequently, this orchid is endangered because its habitat is gradually disappear.

Long-term decline in white-tailed deer browse supply: can lichens and litterfall act as alternative food sources that preclude density-dependent feedbacks

The continuous decline of the browse supply confirmed the hypothesis that introduced white-tailed deer were not at equilibrium with their browse supply and that further degradation of the habitat had occurred.

Testing for Bottom—up Effects in an Overbrowsed Boreal Landscape

On Anticosti Island (Quebec, Canada), overbrowsing by white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus has substantially modified plant communities and reduced the recruitment of balsam fir Abies balsamea

Boreal peatland margins as repository sites of long-term natural disturbances of balsam fir/spruce forests

Establishment of natural regeneration under severe browsing pressure from white-tailed deer after group seed-tree cutting with scarification on Anticosti Island

It is hypothesized that seed-tree-group cutting in conjunction with soil scarification creates favourable conditions for balsam fir regeneration.

The Origin and Dynamics of Subalpine White Spruce and Balsam Fir Stands in Boreal Eastern North America

Associations among the few tree species in the North American boreal landscape are the result of complex interactions between climate, biota, and historical disturbances during the Holocene. The

Winter habitat selection by white-tailed deer on Anticosti Island 2: relationship between deer density from an aerial survey and the proportion of balsam fir forest on vegetation maps

Density increased with the amount of BF cover and then reached a plateau above 60% or 70% (two smaller windows) or decreased above 50% or 60% (1 km × 1 km and 2 km × 2 km windows).



Detrimental effects of white-tailed deer browsing on balsam fir growth and recruitment in a second-growth stand on Anticosti Island, Québec

It was showed that deer browsing delayed vertical and radial growth and altered the stand structure in favor of white spruce, and browsing intensity on fir may increase in years to come because of an expected higher site attendance and increased spruce budworm activity.

Eastern Hemlock Regeneration and Deer Browsing in the Northern Great Lakes Region: A Re-examination and Model Simulation

: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations are currently extremely high in the upper Great Lakes region, and browsing may have severe negative effects on many forest species, including

A reexamination of moose damage to balsam fir–white birch forests in central Newfoundland: 27 years later

Contrary to the 1960 prediction, moose appear to have had a positive influence on forest growth by thinning most areas to stem densities comparable with those of precommercially thinned stands.

The white-tailed deer : a keystone herbivore

During the last 3 centuries, sweeping manipulations of habitat for agriculture, silviculture, and, to a lesser degree, game management have improved and expanded habitat for white-tailed deer


The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effects of browsing by White-tailed deer on plant communities on Anticosti Island. We compared the vegetation on Anticosti and in the

Balsam Fir on Isle Royale: Effects of Moose Herbivory and Population Density

Balsam fir population parameters were analyzed in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, to assess moose herbivory in relation to the population density of both fir and moose and found that moose suppression of fir height growth and recruitment to the canopy increased with increasing moose density and decreasing fir density.

Plant-specific response to herbivory : Simulated browsing of suppressed balsam fir on isle royale

Artificial removal of foliage from understory balsam fir in two sites on Isle Royale and one mainland site showed that damage such as reduced terminal growth and complete mortality was actually highest among least suppressed trees, suggesting suppression may be a means by which fir remains alive when subjected to continuous browsing.


White-tailed deer have a substantial influence on the reproduction ofHemlock, and on the potential of this species to replace itself in forests where hemlock is the dominant tree species.