The epidemiology of Parkinson's disease: risk factors and prevention

@article{Ascherio2016TheEO,
  title={The epidemiology of Parkinson's disease: risk factors and prevention},
  author={Alberto Ascherio and Michael A Schwarzschild},
  journal={The Lancet Neurology},
  year={2016},
  volume={15},
  pages={1257-1272}
}
Can Parkinson’s disease be prevented? : epidemiological evidence on lifestyle factors
TLDR
The results from prospective cohort studies suggest that lifestyle factors can influence future risk of Parkinson's disease, and interventions on these lifestyle factors may have the possibility to prevent the disease eventually.
Lifestyle and Parkinson's disease progression
TLDR
Patients who ever consumed any amount of caffeinated coffee lived longer and manifested slower disease progression and markedly slower cognitive decline when compared with those who never consumed caffeinated Coffee, and these findings converge with newly reported results of Disease-modifying Potential of Transdermal NICotine in Early Parkinson's Disease (NIC-PD), showing no beneficial effect and possibly accelerated rather than slowed clinical progression.
Exercise and Parkinson's Disease.
  • S. Bonavita
  • Biology, Psychology
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2020
TLDR
The main findings on the effect of physical activity on both mobility and cognition either in animal models of PD or in people with PD are reported, including structural and functional links between gait and cognition.
Statins and Parkinson's: A complex interaction
TLDR
Findings are counterintuitive within the context of cardiovascular health and risk factors, and tend to conflict with the current understanding of the role these play in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, including PD and AD, as well as the understanding of their role in disease progression.
A review of the primary nutritional and environmental factors associated with Parkinson’s disease
TLDR
There is strong evidence that caffeine exerts neuroprotective effects which lower the overall risk of developing Parkinson’s disease and nicotine has a neuroprot protective effect which also lowers the risk.
Relationship between risk and protective factors and clinical features of Parkinson's disease
Chasing Protection in Parkinson’s Disease: Does Exercise Reduce Risk and Progression?
TLDR
Randomized controlled trials of exercise in PD have provided clear evidence for short-term benefits on many PD measurements scales, ranging from disease severity to quality of life, and convergent epidemiological and laboratory data with particular attention to translationally relevant features of exercise are presented.
More Research Is Needed on Lifestyle Behaviors That Influence Progression of Parkinson's Disease
TLDR
A more coordinated international effort is required in the design of lifestyle studies in Parkinson's disease, and it is suggested healthy lifestyle behaviors may slow the progression of PD, empower patients, and reduce disease burden.
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TLDR
The authors assessed the association between Parkinson's disease and parental smoking during childhood in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study conducted in the United States to find it unlikely that parental smoking would predict Parkinson’s disease.
Serum cholesterol levels and the risk of Parkinson's disease.
TLDR
The association between serum levels of cholesterol and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study among 6,465 subjects aged 55 or more years with repeated in-person examination and on average 9.4 years of follow-up was found to be restricted to women.
Physical activity and risk of Parkinson’s disease: a prospective cohort study
TLDR
The hypothesis that physical activity lowers the risk of Parkinson’s disease is not supported, as the number of patients with Parkinson's disease in this study was not large, statistical power may have been limited and further large studies are needed to provide additional data.
Folate intake and risk of Parkinson's disease.
TLDR
The hypothesis that higher intake of folate, vitamin B(6), or related B vitamins lowers the risk of Parkinson's disease is not supported; the current study does not support the hypothesis.
Epidemiology and etiology of Parkinson’s disease: a review of the evidence
TLDR
Studies that assessed possible shared etiological components between PD and other diseases show that REM sleep behavior disorder and mental illness increase PD risk and that PD patients have lower cancer risk, but methodological concerns exist.
Caffeine and risk of Parkinson's disease in a large cohort of men and women
TLDR
Findings from this large, prospective study of men and women are consistent with a protective effect of caffeine intake on PD incidence, with an attenuating influence of HRT in women.
Cigarette smoking and protection from Parkinson's disease
TLDR
A protective association of cigarette smoking for Parkinson's disease may constitute an important etiologic clue.
Obesity, diabetes, and risk of Parkinson's disease
TLDR
The results do not provide evidence for a relationship between body mass index, weight change, waist circumference, or baseline diabetes and risk of Parkinson's disease.
Alcohol and risk of Parkinson's disease in a large, prospective cohort of men and women
TLDR
The results of this large, prospective study do not support an association between alcohol intake and risk of Parkinson's disease.
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