The epidemiology and economics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  title={The epidemiology and economics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.},
  author={David M Mannino and Sidney S Braman},
  journal={Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society},
  volume={4 7},
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease responsible for a large human and economic burden around the world. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for COPD in the developed world, although other important risk factors include occupational exposures, air pollution, airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and genetic predisposition. In most of the world, COPD prevalence and mortality continue to rise in response to increases in smoking, particularly by… CONTINUE READING


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