We have examined extracts of Clostridium butyricum for several enzymes of phospholipid synthesis. Membrane particles were shown to catalyze the formation of CDP-diglyceride from [3H]CTP and phosphatidic acid. The reaction was dependent on Mg2+ and stimulated by monovalent cations. CDP-diglyceride formed in vitro was found to be a substrate for both phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase and phosphatidylserine synthetase. The formation of phosphatidylglycerophosphate from added CDP-diglyceride and [U-14C]sn-glycerol-3-phosphate was dependent on Mg2+ and Triton X-100. The dephosphorylation of endogenously-generated phosphatidylglycerophosphate to yield phosphatidylglycerol was observed to be pH-dependent. The formation of phosphatidylserine from CDP-diglyceride and L-[3-14C]serine was stimulated by Mg2+ and Triton X-100. dCDP-diglyceride was a suitable substrate for both phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase and phosphatidylserine synthetase. Phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity was barely detectable in membrane particles from C. butyricum. The addition of E. coli membrane particles provided efficient phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity in this system. Although plasmalogens are the principal lipids of C. butyricum, none of the products of phospholipid synthesis formed in vitro contained measurable amounts of plasmalogens. The subcellular distribution of both phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase and phosphatidylserine synthetase in C. butyricum was also studied. Both were found to be membrane-associated.