The enfranchisement of citizens abroad: variations and explanations

  title={The enfranchisement of citizens abroad: variations and explanations},
  author={Jean-Michel Lafleur},
  pages={840 - 860}
Today, a large majority of states allow at least some of their emigrants to take part in home country elections from abroad. This article first looks at the diffusion of external voting laws and shows that over the past 25 years they have become widely-adopted and are no longer limited to specific professional categories of citizens. Second, the article explains the international diffusion of external voting by discussing the “norm-internationalization hypothesis” and the “electoral-competition… 

Migrant populations and external voting: the politics of suffrage expansion in Central America

  • Kevin Pallister
  • Political Science, Economics
    Building Inclusive Elections
  • 2019
ABSTRACT Recent decades have seen an enormous expansion in the number of countries allowing their nonresident citizens to vote from abroad, and an emerging literature has sought to identify the

Beyond citizenship and residence? Exploring the extension of voting rights in the age of globalization

The introductory article to the special issue discusses how the extension of voting rights beyond citizenship (that is, to non-national immigrants) and residence (that is, to expatriates) can be

Enfranchising Foreign Residents in Democracy and Dictatorship in Chile

Fear, terror, and control are words used to discuss dictatorship, whereas inclusion, participation, and freedom parallel democracy. While survival of social and political rights is unusual in

Where and why can expatriates vote in regional elections? A comparative analysis of regional electoral practices in Europe and North America

ABSTRACT The article constitutes the first systematic attempt to survey and account for the enfranchisement of non-resident citizens in regional elections. Shifting the focus away from the state to

The international diffusion of expatriate dual citizenship

While the global increase of expatriate dual citizenship acceptance over the past decades has been widely observed, the temporal and spatial contexts of this trend have remained understudied. Based

A multilevel puzzle: Migrants’ voting rights in national and local elections

How does international migration impact the composition of the demos? Constitutional doctrines and democratic theories suggest contrasting responses: an insular one excludes both non-citizen

Votes, Votes, Votes: Explaining the Long Road to Emigrant Enfranchisement in Ireland

  • T. Reidy
  • History, Economics
    Frontiers in Political Science
  • 2021
Enfranchisement of emigrant citizens living outside their home states has been a notable trend in recent decades. While emigrant voting rights are viewed by some as an important part of the wave of

Transnational voting rights and policies in violent democracies: a global comparison

In recent decades more than one hundred countries have enfranchised their diasporas, allowing emigrants to vote from abroad. However, this widespread formal recognition of extraterritorial voting

Contradictions in the Moral Economy of Migrant Irregularity

In spite of their rhetorical emphasis on enforcement, European governments have overseen a process of formal semi-inclusion of irregular migrants. That process has been taken further at the regional

Enfranchisement as a Tool for Integration: The 1975 Extension of Voting Rights to Resident Aliens in Sweden

ABSTRACT In 1975, Sweden extended voting rights in local elections to immigrants without Swedish citizenship (resident aliens). In this essay, motives behind the reform are analysed and it is argued



Why do states enfranchise citizens abroad? Comparative insights from Mexico, Italy and Belgium

Over the past two decades, sending states have greatly increased their interest in maintaining strong connections with their citizens abroad. The worldwide adoption of external voting – understood

Diffusion of Diaspora Enfranchisement Norms

States have increasingly granted voting rights to their citizens overseas. Traditional accounts of franchise extension suggest that governments’ motivations are either political (new voters are

Contradictions of diasporic institutionalization in Mexican politics: the 2006 migrant vote and other forms of inclusion and control

Abstract This paper examines patterns and contradictions involved in the institutionalization of the relationship between Mexico and its diaspora, with special focus on the migrant vote for president

Expatriates and Elections

  • M. Tager
  • Political Science, Economics
    Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies
  • 2006
This article offers an analysis of an important aspect of transnational politics: emigrants' participation by voting in the elections that take place in their countries of origin. In the past few

The enfranchisement of resident aliens: variations and explanations

What explains the timing of the liberalization of citizenship laws? Although scholars have offered a number of competing explanations for differences among citizenship regimes, few have examined the

Extending Citizenship to Emigrants: Democratic Contestation and a New Global Norm

We argue that the growing literature on emigrant policies should be linked to more general theoretical discussions of the expansion of formal citizenship. State responses to emigrants’ claims for

Stakeholder Citizenship and Transnational Political Participation. A Normative Evaluation of External Voting

A forthcoming study lists nearly 100 countries and territories, i.e., more than half of all members of the United Nations and a clear majority of democratic states, whose laws permit citizens living

Patterns of extraterritorial voting. Working paper T22 of the Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty

The relationship with the state changes when citizens leave the territory of their home state. They interact with state institutions very differently and they are likely to lose certain benefits,

Extraterritorial Political Rights and Dual Citizenship in Latin America

There is variation among the Latin American sending countries in the timing, sequence, and form by which they have approved retention-of-nationality laws (dual-citizenship laws) and have extended


In this piece, Ruth Rubio-Mar[n discusses how emigrant citizenship (understood as emigrants' efforts to remain included in their national communities and the efforts by emigration states to encourage