The energy required to produce materials: constraints on energy-intensity improvements, parameters of demand

@article{Gutowski2013TheER,
  title={The energy required to produce materials: constraints on energy-intensity improvements, parameters of demand},
  author={Timothy G Gutowski and Sahil Sahni and Julian M. Allwood and M. F. Ashby and Ernst Worrell},
  journal={Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences},
  year={2013},
  volume={371}
}
In this paper, we review the energy requirements to make materials on a global scale by focusing on the five construction materials that dominate energy used in material production: steel, cement, paper, plastics and aluminium. We then estimate the possibility of reducing absolute material production energy by half, while doubling production from the present to 2050. The goal therefore is a 75 per cent reduction in energy intensity. Four technology-based strategies are investigated, regardless… CONTINUE READING

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