The energy payback time of advanced crystalline silicon PV modules in 2020: a prospective study

  title={The energy payback time of advanced crystalline silicon PV modules in 2020: a prospective study},
  author={S. A. Mann and Mariska J. Wild‐Scholten and Vasilis M. Fthenakis and Wilfried G. J. H. M. Sark and Wim C. Sinke},
  journal={Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications},
  pages={1180 - 1194}
The photovoltaic (PV) market is experiencing vigorous growth, whereas prices are dropping rapidly. This growth has in large part been possible through public support, deserved for its promise to produce electricity at a low cost to the environment. It is therefore important to monitor and minimize environmental impacts associated with PV technologies. In this work, we forecast the environmental performance of crystalline silicon technologies in 2020, the year in which electricity from PV is… 

Real energy payback time and carbon footprint of a GCPVS

Grid connected PV systems, or GCPVS, produce clean and renewable energy through the photovoltaic effect in the operation stage of the power plant. However, this is the penultimate stage of the

A critical review of the circular economy for lithium-ion batteries and photovoltaic modules – status, challenges, and opportunities

ABSTRACT To meet net-zero emissions and cost targets for power production, recent analysis indicates that photovoltaic (PV) capacity in the United States could exceed 1 TW by 2050 alongside

Adoption of Photovoltaic Systems Along a Sure Path: A Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) Study Applied to the Analysis of GHG Emission Impacts

The expansion of photovoltaic solar energy in the world is significant. However, its contribution to decreases in greenhouse gases (GHG) is not an absolute guarantee. In this context, it is necessary

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To meet climate goals, photovoltaics (PV) deployment will have to grow rapidly over the next fifteen years. We identify two barriers to this growth: scale-up of manufacturing capacity and the cost of

Large scale deployment of polymer solar cells on land, on sea and in the air

With the development of patterns that connect all cells in series, organic photovoltaics have leapt a step forward being ahead of other solar and even other energy technologies in terms of



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The combined effects of technology development and economies of scale bring the direct manufacturing costs of wafer-based crystalline silicon solar modules down into the range of 0·9–1·3 € per watt-peak, according to current insights and information.

Energy pay‐back time: methodological caveats and future scenarios

  • M. Raugei
  • Engineering, Environmental Science
  • 2012
An in-depth review of the methodology and all underlying assumptions and conventions is presented and results show that combining the two opposing effects of a reduction in cumulative energy demand for PV manufacturing and an increase in grid efficiency will likely result in severely limited reductions, or even possible increases, in the EPBT of PV.

Greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaic electricity from crystalline silicon modules under various energy supply options

The direct and indirect emissions associated with photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation are evaluated, focussing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to crystalline silicon (c‐Si) solar

Accuracy of progress ratios determined from experience curves: the case of crystalline silicon photovoltaic module technology development

Learning curves are extensively used in policy and scenario studies. Progress ratios (PRs) are derived from historical data and are used for forecasting cost development of many technologies,

Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs

In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article


Elkem Solar has updated its environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). Elkem Solar Silicon ® now demonstrates an industrial scale energy payback time (EPBT) of 1.3 months vs. 4 months for the best


This paper reports recent progress by SunPower Corporation to commercialize silicon solar cells with efficiency greater than 20%. Large-area (149cm) cells with efficiency as high as 21.5% (confirmed