The endogenous somnogen adenosine excites a subset of sleep-promoting neurons via A2A receptors in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus

@article{Gallopin2005TheES,
  title={The endogenous somnogen adenosine excites a subset of sleep-promoting neurons via A2A receptors in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus},
  author={Thierry Gallopin and Pierre-Herv{\'e} Luppi and Bruno Cauli and Yoshihiro Urade and Jean Rossier and Osamu Hayaishi and Bertrand Lambolez and Patrice Elie Fort},
  journal={Neuroscience},
  year={2005},
  volume={134},
  pages={1377-1390}
}

Adenosine A(2A) receptors regulate the activity of sleep regulatory GABAergic neurons in the preoptic hypothalamus.

Findings support a hypothesis that A2AR-mediated activation of MnPN and VLPO GABAergic neurons contributes to adenosinergic regulation of sleep.

Prostaglandins and adenosine in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.

Morphine Inhibits Sleep-Promoting Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area Via Mu Receptors and Induces Wakefulness in Rats

Investigation of the effects of morphine on the sleep-promoting neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), a putative sleep-active nucleus, indicates that morphine inhibits sleep- Promoting neurons in the VLPO by affecting mu receptors and so induces wakefulness in rats.

Microinjection of Adenosine into the Hypothalamic Ventrolateral Preoptic Area Enhances Wakefulness via the A1 Receptor in Rats

Bilateral microinjection of AD or an AD transporter inhibitor into the VLPO of rats decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapidEye movement (REM) sleep and diminished AD-induced wakefulness, and data indicate that AD enhances wakefulness in theVLPO via A1R in rats.

Glucose Induces Slow-Wave Sleep by Exciting the Sleep-Promoting Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus: A New Link between Sleep and Metabolism

It is found that sleep-promoting VLPO neurons integrate energetic signals such as ambient glucose directly to regulate vigilance states accordingly and should be involved in the drowsiness that one feels after a high-sugar meal.

α2-Adrenergic Stimulation of the Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus Destabilizes the Anesthetic State

It is concluded that local modulation of α-adrenergic activity in the VLPO destabilizes, but does not fully antagonize, the anesthetic state, thus priming the brain for anesthetic emergence.

Hypothalamic control of sleep.

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References

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Identification of sleep-promoting neurons in vitro

It is proposed that the reciprocal inhibitory interaction of such VLPO neurons with the noradrenergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic waking systems to which they project is a key factor for promoting sleep.

Nicotinic Enhancement of the Noradrenergic Inhibition of Sleep-Promoting Neurons in the Ventrolateral Preoptic Area

Sleep-promoting VLPO neurons are dually inhibited by ACh through a muscarinic postsynaptic action and a nicotinic presynaptic action on noradrenergic terminals, allowing ACh and nicotine to enhance wakefulness by inhibiting sleep-promoted systems while facilitating other wake-promote systems.

Adenosinergic modulation of rat basal forebrain neurons during sleep and waking: neuronal recording with microdialysis

It is suggested that in naturally awake and sleeping animals, adenosine exerts tonic inhibitory influences on BF neurons, supporting the hypothesized role ofAdenosine in sleep regulation.

alpha 2-Adrenoceptor-mediated presynaptic modulation of GABAergic transmission in mechanically dissociated rat ventrolateral preoptic neurons.

The results indicate that all VLPO neurons contain GABAergic inputs and that the different morphological subgroups of VL PO neurons are correlated not only to different postsynaptic responses to NA but also to different presynaptic NA responses.

Activation of ventrolateral preoptic neurons by the somnogen prostaglandin D2.

PGD2 increased nonrapid eye movement sleep and induced striking expression of Fos in the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), a cluster of neurons that may promote sleep by inhibiting the tuberomammillary nucleus, the source of the ascending histaminergic arousal system.

Minireview: Sleep regulation in adenosine A2A receptor-deficient mice

A2AR is found to be important in sleep regulation by using several A1R and A2AR agonists, including N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and 2-(4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)- adenosine-5′- N -ethylcarboxamideadenosines (CGS 21680).
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